Showing posts with label prose. Show all posts
Showing posts with label prose. Show all posts

Friday, 16 February 2018

Faceless by Amma Darko; Analysis, Plot, About Author, Themes, Setting, Literary devices, Characterisation

Faceless by Amma Darko

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Analysis of “Faceless” Amma Darko was born in Koforidua, Ghana, and grew up in Accra. She studied in Kumasi, where she received her diploma in 1980. She is one of the most significant contemporary Ghanaian literary writers. She is the author of the following novels:  Faceless (2003), The Housemaid (1999), Beyond the Horizon (1995) and Not Without Flowers (2007). Analysis of “Faceless”

PLOT

Attempted Rape

The novel opens with fourteen year old Fofo sleeping on an old cardboard at the Agbogbloshie market. Except for her new job of washing carrots at the vegetable market in Agbogbloshie, her life in Sodom and Gomorrah, a slum close to the market consisted mainly of watching adult movies and taking alcohol. In her sleep, she dreamt of living in a home with a roof and a toilet, a dream shared by other street children  like her.

She was woken up suddenly by Poison, a street lord who attempted to rape her. Fofo resisted him and ran to Odarley, her best friend who lived in a rented wooden shack. She told Odarley about Poison’s attempted rape and her intention to see her mother whom she believed had some connections with Poison. Fofo’s mother, Maa Tsuru informed Fofo, that her elder sister, Baby T was dead and Poison had threatened her into silence over Baby T’s death. She therefore urged Fofo to leave for her safety.

Kabria’s Encounter with Fofo

In sharp contrast to the life in Sodom and Gomorrah is Kabria’s life with her family. A mother of three lively children- Obea, Essie and Ottu, she lived in a decent neighbourhood in Accra, worked with MUTE a non-governmental agency and drove a problematic old car nick-named Creamy. She ran into Fofo at the Agbloghoshie market while shopping for vegetables. Kabria was standing with other spectators at the spot where Baby T’s body was found when Fofo, disguising as a boy tried to steal her purse. Kabria rescued her from the angry mob. Fofo revealed her female identity and told Kabria that Baby T was her sister. Meanwhile, a lot of people had been made to believe that the dead girl (Baby T) was a kayayoo(a market porter from the north) to conceal her true identity and discourage further enquiry into her death. MUTE (the non-governmental organisation where Kabria worked) got interested in Baby T’s matter and granted Fofo protection by taking her into custody temporarily while conducting investigations into the circumstances surrounding Baby T’s death.

The circumstances surrounding Baby T’s death was revealed through two main sources: Fofo and investigations by MUTE.

How Baby T became a prostitute

Baby T was the third child of Maa Tsuru while Fofo was fourth. Their jobless father, Kwei had abandoned them mainly as a result of the superstitious belief that Maa Tsuru had been cursed from birth. Baby T was sexually abused by her mother’s second lover, Kpakpo and was further defiled by Onko, a generous uncle who lived in the same compound with them and in whom she tried to confide.

Through Kpapkpo’s gimmicks, Baby T was sold to a prostitution ring  consisting of Madam Abidjan, Maami Brooni and Poison, the street lord and ring leader. She was made to work as a child prostitute in Maami Brooni’s brothel with her earnings sent to Maa Tsuru who simply turned a blind eye.

Meanwhile, Onko’s welding business had suffered great setback after defiling Baby T. A witchdoctor made him believe that his misfortune was caused by the defilement of Baby T whom he said was a cursed child. As a form of remedy, the witch doctor asked Onko to bring some sacrificial items which would include Baby T’s pubic hair.

How Baby T died

Kpakpo helped Onko to connect with Baby T once again. Poison eventually led Kpakpo to Maami Brooni’s brothel where Baby T worked as a prostitute. Baby T remembered what Onko did to her in the past and totally declined to sleep with him. Enraged at her refusal, Poison slapped and tried to beat her into submission. Baby T was found dead on the concrete floor with her head split open. She was alone with Onko in the room at the time of her death. Onko committed suicide thereafter.

THEMES OF FACELESS

Discrimination against women: Baby T and Maa Tsuru are symbolically representative of the sins visited upon all women in a society where from birth women are discriminated against and made responsible not only for their sins, but for those of men in society. In the story, nothing goes right when men are involved and many of the male characters in the novel are murderers, child abusers, rapists, or simply good for nothing. Those not presented in this light are trapped in their distorted perceptions of women as caregivers and housewives, such as Kabrias husband, Adade, who expects her to be waiting at the door to take his briefcase when he returns from work. Despite the fact that Kabria works a long day, she is still expected to manage the household, cook, and take care of the children.
Maa Tsuru who is abandoned penniless by her husband as a result of a curse (being fertile) is a victim of dehumanisation. Her unfortunate predicament is made worse by superstition, poverty and illiteracy. Her daughter, Baby T is raped by Kpakpo and later murdered by Poison.
Darko, cleverly, depicts these evils perpetrated against women in our society. She urges us, especially men, to search their conscience and have a change of mind in the way they see the role of women in the family and in the society at large.

Street child phenomenon: The novel, Faceless, demonstrates the personal and social tragedy of each and every child that ends up on the streets. As one of the characters puts it in quoting assassinated US president John F. Kennedy, The future promise of any nation can be directly measured by the present prospects of its youth.
Baby T and her siblings end up on the streets as a result of their parents irresponsility. This parental failure exposes them to the streets where the fittest survive. They become prostitutes, petty robbers and heavy drinkers to survive on the street. Later, Baby T is murdered by Poison, the street lord. Amma Darko seems to be asking what hope there is if societies can allow the conditions that result in the fate of Baby T, Fofo and other street children in Ghana and other African countries. Children who are victims of abuse grow up to become abusers themselves, as is the case of poison who is shown to be a victim through his own abuse as a child, but who now no longer suffered the pain, he inflicted it.
Darko succeeds in hammering home a powerful message that children and the way they are treated are the true measures of how societies are judged.

Leadership failure: Proverbs 29:2 states, When the righteous are in authority, the people rejoice; but when the wicked beareth rule, the people mourn. In Faceless, it is evident that there is total neglect of duty, either by omission or commission, on the part of government of the day. There is a total neglect of social institutions that see to the day to day running of the society. The police station that Kabria visited with her colleague was in a state of dilapidation. There was no vehicle, no good filing system and the building itself is about to collapse. The police are charged with the sole responsibility of maintaining law and order, but an ill-equipped police will surely come short of this responsibility. Anarchy rules when there is a breakdown in law and order. This is the reason why people like Poison will continue to reign and cause havoc in the society.

The role of the media and NGOs in championing social courses: In Faceless, the role of the media and non-governmental organisations in the propagation and sustenance of peace and crime free society is highly underscored. The role of these agencies is critical. They shoulder a huge responsibility that should be jealously guarded for the good of the society. The people rely on the media for information, and a well-informed society is a progressive society. In the novel, Sylv Po of Harvest FM represents the picture of the work of the media. Sylv Po is both active and intelligent. He develops interest in Fofos case and uses his radio programme to fight against crime in the society.
Kabria, on her own part with her organization, did a wonderful job. MUTE is a veritable NGO with the special task of information documentation on social problems such as demented pregnant women, street child issue, etc. MUTE picks interest in Fofos case and together with Sylv Po of Harvest FM, the mystery behind the death of Baby T is unraveled.
Darko seems to be saying that the responsibility of maintaining a peaceful environment should not be left to the government alone. The media, NGOs, private institutions, and individuals all have a role to play in the maintenance of order and crime free society.

SETTING OF “Faceless” by Amma Darko

The story of Faceless is set in one of the most hostile parts of Accra, called Sodom and Gomorrah, named after the biblical city that God destroyed because of its numerous sins. Although the author uses unreal names, she narrates what can possibly be described as real-life events at venues that really exist. Agbogbloshie, Makola market, Abossey-Okai Abeka, korle-Bu and the all-notorious Sodom and Gomorrah can really be found in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

PLOT-SETTING-SUMMARY 2

Sometimes it is better to tell the story of a street child than to look for his murderer. We learn this definitively from Henning Mankell’s book. Amma Darko tells the opposite story: searching for the murderer makes for a better life for those who survive in the streets.

14-year-old Fofo is a street child living in a part of Accra named “Sodom and Gomorrha,” a place that is not good for anybody, least of all to children. Fofo has made it her task to find out what happened to her sister, Baby T, who was found dumped behind a marketplace, beaten and mutilated. Baby T. was the third child of Ma Tsumu, and was born after a brutal beating intended to abort the baby. Her father disappeared, leaving Ma Tsumu to fend for herself with four children. Soon Ma Tsumu found a new lover to share her bed, Kpakpo, who is good-for-nothing and earns his keep by “dubious” means.

Not willing to accept the presence of the new lover, the two brothers leave home. Soon after, Baby T. is sexually abused by Kpakpo. Hurt and confused, the twelve year old girl doesn’t confide in her mother, but instead in a family friend, Onko, who in turn rapes her. Ma Tsumu who then learns about the tragedy finds herself unable to do anything but take money from Onko, who continues to live in the same compound as Baby T. The situation is untenable. Kpakpo suggests that Baby T be sold into prostitution. The theme of discrimination against women is always present in this story. Baby T is representative of the sins visited upon all women in a society where they are discriminated against from birth. There is a note of home in the landscape of the story, when Baby T’s sister Fofo meets with a group of women who run an institution that documents issues called MUTE. The four women are inspired by the plight of Fofo and convert their library center into a practical street initiative.

Author Amma Darko has lived in Accra, near the marketplace where the crime happened. She evokes the vicious cycles of poverty and violence that drive children to the streets and women to prostitution. Her powerful message says that the way children are treated is the true measure of how societies are judged. When life is viewed through children’s eyes, it becomes clear that societies must find the answers to the moral predicaments that they finds themselves in.

LITERARY DEVICES

Style/Language: The novel is divided in into three unequal partsbook one being the biggest. The story is narrated with the eye of God point of view. This is why the pronouns such as: he, she, they, it, his, her, etc., are predominant. The story is quite conversational as characters can be seen in face to face interactions.
The writing is brilliant with simple, easy to understand Ghanaian English, interspersed with the vernacular, giving the reader a feel of Ghanaian culture and what makes her tick. The narrative style is straightforward, drawing the audience in, building tension as the author takes us through dizzying moment of intrigue and suspense to reveal the hidden truth behind the murder of Baby T.

Monologue: This is a long speech made by a character in a story especially when he or she is alone. This device is amply used by Amma Darko to portray the frustrations of Kabria caused by Creamy, the 1975 VW Beetle handed down to her by her husband, Adade. Creamy is an old, rickety car that has seen all kinds of weathers and need to be changed. It frustrates and embarrasses Kabria that she is seen on several occasions talking to it. One time, the car stops in a traffic and Kabria begs it not to disappoint her.

Flashback: This is a device used to recall past events during current events to help us understand the present. We get to know about Maa Tsurus past through a flashback provided by Naa Yomo. We equally get to know Poisons past through flashback. With this we understand what makes Maa Tsuru and Poison behave the way they do. We even sympathise with them, knowing that they are victims of circumstances.

Anticlimax: This is the arrangement of the events of a story so that they appear in descending order. The story of Faceless begins with the death of Baby T followed by the gradual unfolding of other events that cause her death. So the story starts from where it should end.

CHARACTERISATION/ROLES

Baby T: Baby T is the third child of Maa Tsuru. She is sexually abused by her mothers live-in lover, Kpakpo. Confused and betrayed, she confides in a family friend and co-tenant, Onko, who takes advantage of her trust and rapes her. At the advice of Kpakpo Baby T is sent out to Maami Broni through Mama Abidjan to become a comfort woman. She is murdered by poison when she refuses to sleep with Onko who is plotting to get a strand of her pubic hair for the cleansing of his contaminated blood. Baby Ts body is dumped behind a blue Rasta Hairdressing kiosk Salon. The discovery of her dead body triggers Fofo to seek justice for her.

Maa Tsuru: Maa Tsurus mother is betrayed by the young man who impregnated her. She rained curses on him and all his descendants as life drains out of her in giving birth to the baby who will later be known as Maa Tsuru. Maa Tsuru grows up labeled as a cursed person. People distance themselves from her in her family house, where she also resides. After having two sons and two daughters with Kwei, he abandons them. Her two sons leave as soon as they are able to fend for themselves, thereby escaping the nightly moans coming from Maa Tsuru and her new live-in lover.
A new man worms his way into Maa Tsurus bed and connives with Mama Abidjan who promises to find work for Baby T through her questionable recruitment agency in exchange for periodic payments to feed Maa Tsurus new family. Maa Tsuru gives birth to two more children, bringing the number of her children to six and forcing Fofo to leave home. Maa Tsurus life is full of sorrows and regrets; she represents a typical African woman who is made miserable by the men she allowed into her life.

Kabria: Kabria is the backbone of her family. She multitasks as a mother, wife and social worker. Kabrias husband, Adade, an architect, contents himself with his work, joining co-workers to drinking spots to release tension and returning home for dinner. Kabrias children; Obea, Essie and Ottu are all in school. Each childs character is a force to reckon with, but Kabria takes care of their needs almost single-handedly. Kabria plays a crucial role in the unravelling of the mystery behind the murder of Baby T. She takes an interest in Fofos case and manages to get her organization, MUTE, to delve into it. Kabria is Fofos foil character as her family life presents a sharp contrast to Fofos and her street companions.

Fofo: Fofo is the fourth child of Maa Tsuru. She leaves home when she can no longer put up with her mothers excesses. She sets out to find justice for her sisters murder when she gets to know that Baby Ts mutilated body has been found at Agbogbloshie. In a twist of fate, she runs into Kabria who works with a non-governmental organisation named MUTE which functions as an interventionist and alternative library for every social, gender and child issues. MUTE takes an interest in Fofos case and determines to find out what led to Baby Ts death. With the help of Sylv Po, the reporter from Harvest FM, they work their way into a syndicate led by Poison, the street lord that trades in child prostitution, drugs and all manner of street crimes.

Poison: Poison was an innocent boy who ran away from home to escape the constant abuse of a drunken stepfather. He got himself caught up in a bad company. He ended up as a messenger in a brothel while working his way up by bullying, raping and murdering and is now known as Poison, the street lord―a clear case of a victim turned into a victimiser. He is the one that killed Baby T and ordered for her body to be dumped behind the Rasta Hairdressing Kiosk Salon at Agbogbloshie.

Kwei: Kwei is an unemployed mason who still lives with his mother when he should be on his own fending for himself. His relationship with Maa Tsuru is not accepted by his mother as she sees her as a cursed woman. Kwei does not listen to his mother; rather, he gets Maa Tsuru pregnant. He leaves for a greener pasture, leaving promises of a better life when he returns, and so is not around when his first child is born. However, he comes back with tales of woe and disappointment. He gets Maa Tsuru pregnant the second time and abandons her. He comes back after the birth of his second boy empty-handed, but looking like a changed man. Somehow, he manages to warm himself back into the arms of Maa Tsuru. He impregnates her yet again, but this time he becomes fed up with Maa Tsurus fecundity. He gives her the beating of her life with the sole purpose of aborting the baby, but fails. The baby is named Baby T even in the absence of her father. Kwei comes back the third time, lures Maa Tsuru into his arms, gets her pregnant and disappears for good, leaving Maa Tsuru with four children to cater for. Kwei represents the theme of parental irresponsibility.

Kpakpo: Kpakpo is another character that exemplifies the theme of parental irresponsibility. He is small in stature, but full of fraud and deceit. He makes a living by tricking people; he copllects rents from them without providing accommodation. Because of this, he is always trying to hide from his creditors.
Kpakpo takes advantage of Maa Tsuru promising her love and warming his way into her bed, and bearing two sons with her. He becomes a leech on Maa Tsuru, sucking her and her children dry. He is the first to molest Baby T one night when Maa Tsuru is away as a result of pregnancy complication. He is the one that suggested sending Baby T away to Maami Broni to cover up the shameful thing he did to Baby T. Kpakpo later abandoned Maa Tsuru with their two sons.

Onko: Onko lives in the same compound with Maa Tsuru, Naa Yomo and other tenants. Everyone in the compound sees Onko as a kind man, especially the children who usually cluster around him. After Baby T is molested by the live-in lover of her mother, she confides in Onko, but he takes advantage of her and rapes her. However, Onko continues to eye Baby T. This new situation is too much for Maa Tsuru to take, so she decides to take the advice of Kpakpo to send Baby T away.
After the raping of Baby T, Onkos furniture business begins to crumble. His customers begin to leave him until his business finally collapses. He seeks help from a native doctor and amongst the things he is asked to bring is a strand of Baby Ts pubic hair. He finds his way to Maami Broni through Kpakpo and pays Poison a huge sum of money to sleep with Baby T. Rmembering how Onko destroyed her life, Baby T refuses to sleep with him. It is while Poison is beating Baby T into submission that he murdered her. Onko commits suicide afterwards.

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Wednesday, 27 April 2016

Raisinn in the sun

Analysis of Raisin in the Sun.

Plot Account
A Raisin in the Sun portrays a few weeks in the life of the Youngers, an African-American family living on the Side of Chicago in the 1950s. When the play opens, the Youngers are about to receive an insurance check for $10,000. This money comes from the deceased Mr. Younger’s life insurance policy. Each of the adult members of the family has an idea as to what he or she would like to do with this money. The matriarch of the family, Mama, wants to buy a house to fulfill a dream she shared with her husband. Mama’s son, Walter Lee, would rather use the money to invest in a liquor store with his friends. He believes that the investment will solve the family’s financial problems forever. Walter’s wife, Ruth, agrees with Mama, however, and hopes that she and Walter can provide more space and opportunity for their son, Travis. Finally, Beneatha, Walter’s sister and Mama’s daughter, wants to use the money for her medical school tuition. She also wishes that
her family members were not so interested in joining the white world. Beneatha instead tries to find her identity by looking back to the past and to Africa. As the play progresses, the Youngers clash over their competing dreams. Ruth discovers that she is pregnant but fears that if she has the child, she will put more financial pressure on her family members. When Walter says nothing to Ruth’s admission that she is considering abortion, Mama puts a down payment on a house for the whole family. She believes that a bigger, brighter dwelling will help them all. This house is in Clybourne Park, an entirely white neighborhood. When the Youngers’ future neighbors find out that the Youngers are moving in, they send Mr. Lindner, from the Clybourne Park Improvement Association, to offer the Youngers money in return for staying away. The Youngers refuse the deal, even after Walter loses the rest of the money ($6,500) to his friend Willy Harris, who persuades Walter to invest in the liquor store and then runs off with his cash. In the meantime, Beneatha rejects her suitor, George Murchison, whom she believes to be shallow and blind to the problems of race. Subsequently, she receives a marriage proposal from her Nigerian boyfriend, Joseph Asagai, who wants Beneatha to get a medical degree and move to Africa with him (Beneatha does not make her choice before the end of the play). The Youngers eventually move out of the apartment, fulfilling the family’s long-held dream. Their future seems uncertain and slightly dangerous, but they are optimistic and determined to live a better life. They believe that they can succeed if they stick together as a family and resolve to defer their dreams no
longer.


Analysis of Major Characters

Walter As Mama’s only son, Ruth’s defiant husband, Travis’s caring father, and Beneatha’s belligerent brother, Walter serves as both protagonist and antagonist of the play. The plot revolves around him and the actions that he takes, and his character evolves the most during the course of the play. Most of his actions and mistakes hurt the family greatly, but his belated rise to manhood makes him a sort of hero in the last scene.


Mama
Mama is Walter and Beneatha’s sensitive mother and the head of the Younger household. She demands that members of her family respect themselves and take pride in their dreams. Mama requires that the apartment in which they live always be neat and polished. She stands up for her beliefs and provides perspective from an older generation. She believes in striving to succeed while maintaining her moral boundaries; she rejects Beneatha’s progressive and seemingly un-Christian sentiments about God, and Ruth’s consideration of an abortion disappoints her. Similarly, when Walter comes to her with his idea to invest in the liquor store venture, she condemns the idea and explains that she will not participate in such un-Christian business. Money is only a means to an end for Mama; dreams are more important to her than material wealth, and her dream is to own a house with a garden and yard in which Travis can play.

Beneatha
Beneatha is an attractive college student who provides a young, independent, feminist perspective, and her desire to become a doctor demonstrates her great ambition. Throughout the play, she searches for her identity. She dates two very different men: Joseph Asagai and George Murchison. She is at her happiest with Asagai, her Nigerian boyfriend, who has nicknamed her “Alaiyo,” which means “One for Whom Bread—Food—Is Not Enough.” She is at her most depressed and angry with George, her pompous, affluent African-American boyfriend. She identifies much more with Asagai’s interest in rediscovering his African roots than with George’s interest in assimilating into white culture.


Asagai
One of Beneatha’s fellow students and one of her suitors, Asagai is from Nigeria, and throughout the play he provides an international perspective. Proud of his African heritage, he hopes to return to Nigeria to help bring about positive change and modern advancements. He tries to teach Beneatha about her heritage as well. He stands in obvious contrast to Beneatha’s other suitor, George Murchison,


List of all character and their roles

Walter Lee Younger -
The protagonist of the play. Walter is a dreamer. He wants to be rich and devisesplans to acquire wealth with his friends, particularly Willy Harris. When the play opens, he wants to invest his father’s insurance money in a new liquor store venture. He spends the rest of the play endlessly preoccupied with discovering a quick solution to his family’s various problems.

Beneatha Younger (“Bennie”) -
Mama’s daughter and Walter’s sister. Beneatha is an intellectual. Twenty years old, she attends college and is better educated than the rest of the Younger family. Some of her personal beliefs and views have distanced her from conservative Mama. She dreams of being a doctor and struggles to determine her identity as a well-educated black woman.

Lena Younger (“Mama”) -
Walter and Beneatha’s mother. The matriarch of the family, Mama is religious, moral, and maternal. She wants to use her husband’s insurance money as a down payment on a house with a backyard to fulfill her dream for her family to move up in the world.


Ruth Younger -
Walter’s wife and Travis’s mother. Ruth takes care of the Youngers’ small apartment. Her marriage to Walter has problems, but she
hopes to rekindle their love. She is about thirty, but her weariness makes her seem older Constantly fighting poverty and domestic troubles, she continues to be an emotionally strong woman. Her almost pessimistic pragmatism helpsher to survive.

Travis Younger -
Walter and Ruth’s sheltered young son. Travis earns some money by carrying grocery bags and likes to play outside with other neighborhood children, but he has no bedroom and sleeps on the living-room sofa.

Joseph Asagai -
A Nigerian student in love with Beneatha. Asagai, as he is often called, is very proud of his African heritage, and Beneatha hopes to learn about her African heritage from him. He eventually proposes marriage to Beneatha and hopes she will return to Nigeria with him.

George Murchison - A wealthy, African-American man who courts Beneatha. The Youngers approve of George, but Beneatha dislikes his willingness to submit to white culture and forget his African heritage. He challenges the thoughts and feelings of other black people through his arrogance and flair for intellectual competition.

Mr. Karl Lindner -
The only white character in the play. Mr. Lindner arrives at the Youngers’ apartment from the Clybourne Park Improvement Association. He offers the Youngers a deal to reconsider moving into his (all-white) neighborhood.

Bobo -
One of Walter’s partners in the liquor store plan. Bobo appears to be as mentally slow as his name indicates. Willy Harris - A friend of Walter and coordinator of the liquor store plan. Willy never appears onstage, which helps keep the focus of the story on the dynamics of the Younger family.

Mrs. Johnson -
The Youngers’ neighbor. Mrs. Johnson takes advantage of the Youngers’ hospitality and warns them about moving into a predominately white neighborhood.




Themes of A RAISIN IN THE SUN

1] SACRIFICE
2]SUFFERING
3]DISSATISFACTION
4] PORVERTY
5] PRIDE
6] POWER
7] RACIAL AFFIRMATION
8] RIGHT OF CHOICE
9] GENDER
10] DREAMS HOPE AND PLAN

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Friday, 19 February 2016

The themes of harvest of corruption


Analysis Of The Themes In Harvest Of Corruption


The theme of Retribution analysis

This is the central theme of the play. The main idea is that a man reaps what he sows. All the corrupt characters are brought to book in the end. Chief is convicted and sentenced to twenty-five years in imprisonment with hard labour and ordered to refund the embezzled funds. This punishment is his harvest of corruption. The humiliation suffered by Aloho for drug trafficking, her pregnancy and death also portray her harvest of corruption. Ochuole and Madam Hoha are sentenced to ten years in imprisonment with hard labour while Madam Hoha’s hotel is also sealed. This is their harvest of corruption. Justice Odili and the Commissioner of Police are sentenced to twenty years in imprisonment for receiving bribe. Ayo, the clerk is also punished as he is sentenced to five years
imprisonment for receiving a bribe.


The theme of Corruption analysis

The theme of Corruption
The author illustrates the bribery, large-scale embezzlement in official quarters, drug trafficking, sexual immorality perpetuated by highly placed personalities who are supposed to be policy makers and law enforcement officers. Frank Ogodo Ogbeche shows how corruption permeates government institutions and every fabric of the society as well as the devastating effect corruption has on our everyday life.


The theme of Betrayal of Public Trust analysis

The theme of Betrayal of Public Trust
Chief Haladu-Amaka, the Minister of External Relations betrayed the trust reposed in him by virtue of the public office he holds through large-scale embezzlement of public funds, forgery, fraud and bribery. The author advocates a political, social and moral re-birth.



The theme of Unemployment analysis

The theme of Unemployment: Unfortunately, many jobseekers have lost their dignity and souls to the devil just because of their desperate attempt to be gainfully employed. But can we blame them? How can it be justified that after rigorous school life, one spends two to three years still jobhunting? Of course this can be psychologically traumatizing! No wonder, jobless graduates are quick to succumb to societal pressure; they engage in any form of activities in the name of job insofar something comes out of it. Aloho and Ochuole are victims of this terrible situation in Jacassa. Consequently, one dies and the other is sentenced to jail. In Nigeria today, about 40 million people are unemployed and as found in Harvest of Corruption where Aloho becomes a drug trafficker and fornicator all in the name of being employed, many Nigerian youths are now gullible of several crimes and all other self-destructive acts. Needless to say, an idle hand is the devil’s workshop, as the popular saying goes.


The theme of impatient analysis

The theme of impatient
: Had Aloho listened to the voice of reason from her good and well-meaning friend Ogeyi Ogar, she would probably have been saved from the shame and her eventual destruction. When her best friend warns her against her working with Ochuole and Chief, Aloho pays deaf ears and replies: “You can call me a rebel, but I need a job. That’s what matters to me.” (page 9) Patience is indeed a virtue that Aloho lacks. He who has patience has everything but he who does not, has nothing. This is true of Aloho and it is the reason for her tragic end. Because of her stubbornness, she is made to peddle hard drugs unknowingly and is arrested. However, Chief, her boss, bails her out through corrupt means by bribing the judge though, Aloho’s shame and disgrace and frustration are heightened when she becomes pregnant for Chief. At last, she dies at childbirth. This is indeed a great lesson that trying to achieve any goal by all means, damning the consequences, always leads to a disastrous end for the person.  


The theme of Evil analysis

The theme of Evil :
Evil may last so long that people may wonder whether the perpetrator would ever bear the brunt of her action. In the play, the case of Chief Ade-Amaka is a clear indication of this assertion. He abuses public office by stealing with impunity while also engaging in cocaine pushing. Madam Hoha’s hotel is his haven for all the planning and scheming of the political bastardization. It is also, where he engages in sexual pervasion with Ochuole and then Aloho. He is doing this and having his way in such a manner that one might think he would never be caught. However, the law later catches up with him when Ogeyi Ogar, the Inspector Inaku and ACP Yakubu team up against him and the law of karma catches up on Chief
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Character analysis and roles of all character in Harvest of corruption


Roles and Analysis of Major and Minor Characters in Harvest of Corruption


Characterization of Harvest of Corruption

Character Analysis and Role of ALOHO In Harvest of Corruption

1. ALOHO
Aloho is the main character in the play. She is a young and naïve university female graduate desperately searching for a job. In her desperation, she ignorantly becomes part of a criminal network involved in drugtrafficking in spite of her friend’s constant warning to keep away from notorious Ochuole. Aloho is arrested and detained for drug trafficking. Upon her release, she suddenly realizes that she is pregnant for Chief Haladu- Amaka and eventually dies during child-birth. The author uses Aloho’s character to portray the ordeals of many young and jobless Nigerian graduates, how they are easily taken advantage of and lured into crime intheir desperation to eke out a living.


Character Analysis and Role of OCHUOLE In Harvest of Corruption

2. OCHUOLE
ochuole is of average height who likes to wear "a tight mini skirt with an equally dark red designer shoes" (p. 1. She is said to be "gregarious... described by her friends as an extrovert" (p. l). Ochuole is free-willed, a bit on the talkative side. Her idea of a city is where "oranges" beg for plucking as soon as "they are ripe" (p. 2). By implication that is just what she has been doing sinee,arriving Jabu, the capital of Jacassa. Her "heydays in the university" (p. 2), to use the words of Aloho, were remarkable for what they were. Aloho was to tell ogeyi about Ochuole when she describes the latter as "that girl who was almost making herself a nuisance on the campus" (p. 8). She had been "that girl who caused a lecturer's suspension for leaking examination papers" (p. 8) Because ochuole's thinking is always centred on plucking "oranges" when she notices "they.are ripe", she has no time for "born-again stuff" (p. 3). She urges Aloho to spare her "anot of your crusade sermons She is one made to eat her cake "and still have it' (p. 3) She is open and clear her friend who arrives the city of Jabu still with traces morality, ochuol advises Aloho: "All you have to do is open your eyes wide not to look at Aso or Zuma rock o" (p. 4)
Ochuole promises Aloho a job and delivers it to her. She promises to "put a word for you (Aloho) to my Minister" because she is very sure "he will not say no" (p. 5)

. She is the Minister's mistress, his confidante, business partner and corrupt outlet. Ochuole is the most influential person in Chief's life who could easily extract money at will from him, and a
been notice too. Although Aloho's designation at work is Protocol Officer, she has simply been employed to be a drug carrier. "My duty", Ochuole informs Madam Hoha "is to convince
(Aloho) to play ball with him (Chief and then the usual commission keeps rolling inWhen she speaks to Chief on Aloho's need for a job, it is like a directive rather than a request "I have assured her that you will employ her" (p. 17)

Ochuole is an astute manipulator. Apart from manipulating Chiefto do her bidding, she subjects Aloho to do her own will. Such is the high-voltage manipulation over Aloho that the latter in tears narrates her ordeal to Ogeyi in these words: "Ogeyi, what pains me most is that in all this drama, I am not even given a chance to choose my own role to play" (p. 58). Almost as Aloho is given the new job, she is quickly asked to travel to the United States with an ill-fated suitcase. The newly employed is astonished and in a protesting voice asks her: "You never mentioned any trip to USA as part of my job. What is all this about?" Ochuole responds: "You wanted a job and here is
one" (p. 41). She cajoles Aloho with "Come on cheer up, now you
have it don't lose it" (p. 4). She reveals to Ogeyi later that she was "even lured into having affair with Chief (p. 58) probably by Ochuole which is why "the very memory ofochuole o the Chief gives me the nightmare" (p. 59)



Character Analysis and Role of CHIEF ADE HALADU-AMAKA In Harvest of Corruption

3. CHIEF ADE HALADU-AMAKA
Ade Amaka (a ka. Chief)
Chief has a protruding stomach that his friends fondly call him "the pregnant chief. He has a round face which is said to be constantly covered with sweat "no matter the weather (p l4). He is said to breathe heavily whether he is awake or asleep. As for his gait, he "walks like a man who has an enlarged scrotum" (p. 14). This no doubt paints a picture of corruption, the image of social decay as represented in one person alone.

He is the Hon. Minister in charge of External Relations. We are never treated to the real nature of his work as a Minister. We see him run after girls, order food and drinks in Akpara Hotel which he also uses as the warehouse for his cocaine deals. He is painted as a spendthrift who asks Madam Hoha to "just serve yourself whatever you want and add the bills" (p. 14) immediately the hotel proprietress complains that he has not been "fair" to her.
He enjoys the warmth of women's company. At Akpara Hotel he orders for "two bottles of big stout," (p. 14) and two mortars ofishi ewu for him and for Ochuole. When Ochuole complains of money to settle her mother's hospital bill, he "draws his portfolio nearer to himself presses the buttons open and pulls out a bundle of money which he throws on her laps" (p. 16.) he sees Aloho, he indicates readiness to give her a job in his Ministry and schedules a meeting at 4 pm in his favourite hotel-Akpara Hotel. We later learn that he puts Aloho in the family way shortly after coming in contact with her Chief is both the grower of corruption and the reaper of its outcome. He briefs the Police Commissioner and Justice odili on basis that they will protect him against the dictates of the law. This way he runs his hard drug business unmolested, and when one of his carriers Aloho is caught at the airport, Justice Odili organizes a Kangaroo hearing and releases the culprit in a matter of days. He divests the Ministry of huge sums of money and converts government workers into his direct servants and agents in his nefarious deals. In the end, he receives a very long term. About to face the law, he loses his nerves. He asks the SSS people who come for him to give him "time to pull" himself together. Earlier, he had tried to be bold by asking them: "Who
are you and who the hell is your Chief that you should come into my office and behave as if the world is in your pockets?" (p. 89) The same loss of nerves is observed when the case is underway. "My Lord," Chief pleads, "I think I want to see a doctor. I am not feeling well'" (p109). When he is about to be sentenced, he pleads for leniency and informs the court that "my entire village and local government depend on me" (p. As if the jail for those who are not married, Chief further pleads, "Show mercy My Lord, I have a family p-l-e-a s e' (p. 118).




Character Analysis and Role of OGEYI In Harvest of Corruption

4. OGEYI
Ogeyi is Aloho’s friend and confidant. Aloho lives with Ogeyi in her small apartment in Pannya. She tries to discourage Aloho from taking Ochuole’s job offer and warns her to keep away from Ochuole. She seeks justice for Aloho by reporting Chief to the police. She is the voice of reason in the play.


Character Analysis and Role of MADAM HOHA In Harvest of Corruption

5. MADAM HOHA
Madam Hoha is the proprietress of Akpara Hotel. The hotel is where Chief perpetuates his criminal activities.She is sentenced to ten years imprisonment with hardlabour along with Ochuole and her hotel was sealed.



Character Analysis and Role of ACP YAKUBU Yakubu In Harvest of Corruption

6. ACP YAKUBU Yakubu is an Assistant Commissioner of Police. He stands out as an incorruptible and honest police officer. He withstood pressures from his boss, the Commissioner to stop investigating Chief’s activities at the Ministry of External Relations. His investigations led to the arrest and prosecution of Chief, Ochuole, Madam Hoha, the Commissioner of Police and the corrupt Justice Odili.

Character Analysis and Role of Ayo In Harvest of Corruption

Ayo (p. 26)
We are introduced to Ayo as a clerk in the Ministry of External Relations. He is a bare-faced liar who claims not to know about the embezzlement in the Ministry until he is bribed hank you. You should
expect me tomorrow evening unfailingly," (p. 28) he assures Inspector lmaka. We are informed that he is "slim and hungry-looking, but well-dressed with a white shirt over apair black trousers and a black tie to match." His front ket is lined with an array of biros of three colours. His shoes are slightly needful of repair at the sides, having been "chopping alignment (p 26. No wonder he quickly accepts a two thousand naira bribe to augment his monthly pay of two thousands five hundred naira take home. An ignorant fellow, in revealing the sleaze in the Ministry after receiving a bribe, Ayo is not aware that he is culpable for exposing official secrets and also for receiving monetary inducement, Dragged to court along with his Minister boss and the latter's accomplices, Ayo receives a five-year jail term for corruption as well. Free with his mouth; he informs Mrs Obi and Alice on what transpires between Aloho and Chief for which Alice calls him a gossip. His significance it the play is the role ho plays in unveiling the goings- on in the Ministry. The Jndge commetids hina for "exposing a crime" but goes ahead to condemn him "for receiving bribe" (p l 19)



Character Analysis and Role of Alice (Tea Gir) In Harvest of Corruption

Alice (Tea Gir)

She is the tea girl in the office of the secretary to the Minister of External Relations. She speaks Pidgin English. The first time she speaks she accuses Ayo, the Clerical officer of being gossipy for which the latter warns and taunts her. Although she is keen to hear Ayo's gossip she is not keen to meet a "man
we de gossip like woman" (p. 77) such as Ayo That way, Ayo accuses her of meddling in his affairs and asks Mrs. Obi to warn her desist from doing so. The gossip is that Alohi, the Protocol Officer,
had been pregnant for "oga (Chief) and had died from abortion Alice is used to typify what happens in government offices in developing country in which must of her time is spent on gossip and tittle-tattles


Character Analysis and Role of Commissioner of Police In Harvest of Corruption

Commissioner of Police (p. 18)
He is said to be "a tall athletic young man of about forty years "dark in complexion, has thin and sender fingers'' and possesses "red lips with black sports his teeth is said to be "broken" and "coloured" probably because he is a chain smoker and an alcohol addict As we meet him first tme, Chief haladu is visiting him just as he did Justice odili with alot of goodies. The law officer is quick to point out to Chief your Ministry is getting some negative and disturbing publicity lately" and reminds his visitor that "nobody loves negative publicity you know This is an interesting comment because he was later to scream at ACP Yakubu with "public opinion my foot!" (p.62) when he sought to underplay Chief's atrocities against his country the comment is also interesting because the Police Commissioner seems to have made in order raise the value of the booty he is to receive from Chief We are informed that as Chief opens his portfolio and brings out bundles of naira notes and places them on the table, the Commissioner grabs them with the agility of lighting and puts them into his drawer (p. 19). Not only does be expect filthy money from Chief, the Commissioner of Police argues for "increased pay" for the "boys" (p. 20) so as to ensure their "absolute loyalty and excellent performance" (p. 21). Like Justice odili, he also asks Chief to be careful by being vague about what he means: "You have to be careful. I have sensed the signal and I know the danger sign when it appears on the dashboard" (p. 21)
The manner he is described which has been briefly referred to shows that the Commissioner has ugly habits, including his tendency to accept bribes. Once he has been mobilized like Justice Odili, he charges along like a lion sensing an attack on his territory. Just as Justice Odili intimidates the Registrar at the kangaroo hearing, Police Commissioner seeks to intimidate ACPYakubu without achieving much success. He warns the ACP to "steer clear of that Ministry or any other Ministry for that matter or you will be biting more than you can chew" (p. 62). But the ACP, sure-footed, fires back: "Sir, you cannot threaten me and do not bother at what hits me but I shall ask you this, since only those who have skeletons in their cupboard need fear" (p. 63).
The Commissioner and Justice Odili, each an agent of the law, are shown to be drawbacks to the law. It is people like them who weaken the law and prepare the way for corrupt people to evade the law. Both of them receive most the venom of the Judge at the court as he calls them "a big disgrace to our noble profession" (p. 119). The Judge accuses both of them of greed before sentencing each of them to twenty years with hard labour. They both represent agents of the law who work at cross-purposes with what society expects of them, and cause impunity to continue to reign.


Character Analysis and Role of Constable Ojo In Harvest of Corruption

Constable Ojo (p. 54)
A lanky-looking young man possessing an athletic figure, Constable Ojo has very small eyes "which are hidden inside the sockets." We are told that when the Constable looks at a person "there is an uneasy feeling that penetrates through the person's very soul." He is often smartly dressed and "has the knack for breaking seemingly mysterious cases
(p. 54). He works with ACP Yakubu whom he observes as the latter talks to himself in a soliloquy as to the level of in society where "any or highly placed individuals will and can toy with the judiciary and get away with any crime committed Constable ojo in return is equally surprised that at the trial of Aloho for cocaine pushing, "the state prosecutor and the defence counsels both absent at the different times the case came up (p. 55). He is deployed in the play to show that the impunity exercised by Chief and his clique rattles the top (ACP Yakubu) intermediate (inspector inaku) and the low level (Constable ojo) policemen in Jacassa for which something has to be done, and pretty soon too.



Character Analysis and Role of Customs officer In Harvest of Corruption

Customs officer
Like Constable ojo, the customs oficer appears briefly too. He works at the airport and is the fellow who accosts Aloho with the suitcase of cocaine. Described by Chief as "that good-for-nothing Customs officer' (p. 48) because the latter does his job as he is supposed to and her contraband and promises to hand her over to JDLEA (acassa Drug Law Enforcement Agency). He announces to Aloho that she is carrying cocaine. He advises patience as she will enough time to call whoever you want later" By pulling out of chief's corrupt ring and exposing Chief's agent, the customs officer shows that it is better to side with society than with debased individuals.


Character Analysis and Role of Defence Counsel In Harvest of Corruption

Defence Counsel (p. 96)
He is said to be a tall, slim young man in white wig He pleads "Not guilty" for Chief, being his Defence Counsel. He is an astute lawyer who asks the proper questions in order to dismiss his client s charges. He questions the manner the Detective used to extract information for prosecuting the case. When the Prosecution objects, the Judge cries "objection sustained" (p. 101). All his subsequent objections" are unsustained by the Judge. Through his questions Ogeyi is able to give the details she knew about Chief and his collaborators. The Defence Counsel accuses Ogeyi of being "jealous of the fact that your friend (Aloho) was always coming home with plenty of money and gifts from Chief, the Honourable Minister" (p. 104). This comment draws tears from Ogeyi's eyes for which the Prosecution Counsel prays the Judge to restrain the Defence Counsel "from further vulgarism and insinuations (p. 105). As if he was meeting his client (Chief Haladu) for the first time, the Defence Counsel begins to ask him personal questions which soon irritate the Judge: "Don't continue to waste the time of the Court by (p. basis for those personal questions is to show that Chief, his client, is a man who has served the government o his country in one of the most enviable of a Minister..." (p. 110). He claims that "everybody has been satisfied and his staff in the Ministry speak eloquently of his magnanimity, generosity and 110). When he realizes that clients have been declared "guilty", he pleads both "elemency" and option of fine" (p116) The type of punishment meted out to Chief and his accomplices shows that the Judge does not reckon with the Defence Counsel's line of argument.



Character Analysis and Role of Doctor In Harvest of Corruption

Doctor (p. 65)
He is a young man of thirty-five, light-complexioned and slightly bald-headed. He works in Wazobia Hospital in Mabu. It is to him that Aloho goes for abortion when she discovers that she is Rather than contact Chief, she goes straight to this doctor with his fee in her handbag. He is reluctant to carry out the abortion of Aloho's pregnancy but does not reveal this until he had collected the large sum often thousand naira from his patient. It is after this ritual of money exchanging hands that he now asks Aloho if she wants to kill herself by insisting on the pregnancy ofthree months being suddenly aborted.
He postpones the abortion exercise a few times and on one occasion he was almost about to carry out the exercise when Nurse Halimatu rushes in to declare an emergency. From the Doctor's initial reluctance, it is safe to infer that he had arranged this "emergency" with Halimatu. Thus, the Doctor's dilly-dallying strategy stops the abortion and compels Aloho to have her baby, a girl. ordinarily Doctor is pro-life; however, his morality is questionable since he pocketsAloho's ten thousand naira fee without completing the contract between them. His dishonesty is evidenced by his asking Nurse Halimatu to leave us now and please if anybody asks of me, say I am not in, okay!" (p. 75)



Character Analysis and Role of Inspector Inaku In Harvest of Corruption

Inspector Inaku
Inspector Inaku is a detective dressed in mufti. His full name is John Odey Inaku who is a Detective Inspector in the Criminal Investigation Department of the Jacassan Police Force. In his determination to convict Chief and his accomplices, he obtains his evidence against them by bribing Ayo to secure the relevant documents. He secures Ogeyi's story with his "little tape-recorder gesturing for her to speak" (pp. 80-81). In court, he is firm and professional in the manner he presents his case against Chief and his cohorts which must have compelled the court to accept his evidence. Inaku gives the detailed information about Chief, his accessories and Ayo who accepts a bribe of two thousand naira in order to part with documents necessary for the case to be successfully prosecuted. Not withstanding Ayo's usefulness in the suit, he is prosecuted along with the other criminals.



Character Analysis and Role of Judge In Harvest of Corruption

Judge
This Judge is different from Justice odili. He is a devoted law officer who is only out to do justice. He is sprite and business-like. He is keen to get to the heart of the matter as soon as it is possible. "What are the facts of the case?" (p. 96) he asks the Prosecution Counsel once the Defence Counsel submits a "not guilty" plea. At no point does he interrupt either the Defence Counsel or the Prosecution Counsel from explaining their positions fully. However, each time there is a triviality being pursued, particularly by the Defence Counsel, he steps in to nip it in the bud. He overrules unnecessary objections, insists on explicitness in the "choice of words" (p. 103) and demands that all points raised be apposite and relevant. A few times he is humorous in court without losing focus nor fails to ask the necessary questions to move the case forward. His remark before the Jury goes out to give their verdict shows that he stands for justice and fairness. He reminds the jury that "corruption is not a friendly word to the legal institution, therefore anybody who plants corruption should be ready to harvest it' (p. 114) He charges the jury to bear in mind that "justice comes first" (p. 115). In the end, the Judge fearlessly announces the verdict of the jury and goes on to impose the sentences accordingly.



Character Analysis and Role of Lady
In Harvest of Corruption

Lady
She is not described; he only stops on sighting the madman, calling him "Showboy!" she advises the madman against "disturbing the neighbourhood with your noise She asks the insane man to "stop your noise or else I shall call Police to arrest you for noisemaking and stealing from the neighbourhood" (p. 24). Although it is not clear if the madman has her in mind when he claims that "she used to be my darling wife wen I poor", her saying "when you are poor again you can come and marry me" (p. 25) indicates that the lady believes she is the one being referred to. She describes what "Showboy" is saying as "nonsense" and declares, "I can't waste my time listening to you" (p. 25).


Character Analysis and Role of Madman In Harvest of Corruption

Madman
Called "Showboy" by Lady, madman is said to be dressed in tattered clothes and is "carrying a heavy bundle of tightly wrapped bits and pieces of junk drooping over his face He creates a scene by screaming and abusing no one in particular, while laughing from time to time. He addresses no particular audience when he says: "All of you there" (p. 23). Although his remarks seem uncoordinated they leave a lasting impression on ACP Yakubu. He says, for instance, "I be rich, I be rich man but I never steal anybody property." He also says that he is a rich man "as you see me. I dress fine" (p. 23). If appointed a President by the current President (which is a madman's talk) he will "run dis country well. No stealing" (p. 24). Moreover, he is interested in sanitation, "yes! Evrometa. Yes! Na sanitation we need abi na evrometa by ourselves not de country" (pp. 24-25). What the madman says impels ACP Yakubu into deep thought; the Assistant Commissioner considers the madman as having prescribed a cure for the country's "madness and lawlessness" (p. 25). The madman is a metaphor for the confused state, corruption and value overthrow in Jacassa.



Character Analysis and Role of Madam Hoha In Harvest of Corruption

Madam Hoha
The proprietress of Akpara Hotel at Darkin, she is among Chief's accomplices. She is tall, bulky and "seems to be having a lot out of life" (p. 11). Her skin is said to be velvety, not too light and not too dark but "could pass for ebony description." A well-fed "cash madam", she has "achieved some degree of wealth." The playwright describes her looks as those of "the familiar sight of an eastern Jacassan woman of high society." On both hands there are gold bracelets and on her four fingers gold rings with both cheeks lined by "three parallel marks, which look like the whiskers of a cat' (p. 11). She calls ochuole "the chic", the Lioness" and "Bubbling Baby" and in a moment she gossips about Chief and how his likes will "never regret their retirement because of the chain of companies they float" (p From her comments on the Chief and his ilk and how "all they do is stashing government money somewhere through some conduit pipes for the rainy day" (p. 2), it is clear that she is into abetting Chief in his nefarious activities with her two eyes wide open. It also shows that Madam Hoha is a reckless commentator who does not weigh what she says. Making all that remark against the Chief in front of his mistress shows that indeed she speaks "hoha', meaning without restraint. She has a low opinion of Chief who will easily fall when "we'll dangle this babe (Aloho) before the Chief for a price" after all he will employ her and we can make use of her to get what we want" (p. 13) When she is called "Madam de Madam" by Chief, she responds "It's a matter of cash, Chief" (p l4. Chief orders for drinks and two mortars of ishi-ewu for him and ochuole, Madam Hoha that "she her own. When she receives her largesse, she then yields to Chief joining his girl, and remarks is dying have you already" (p. 15). Madam Hoha's Akpara Hotel is Chief's tryst with his lovers. He
tells Madam Hoha that his girls "are supposed to be here waiting for me and not the other way round" (p. 38). Although we treat her here as a minor character because of her limited role in the play she receives a similar as Ochuole's, having been described as having an insatiable appetit money. Her hotel is thus sealed up "as we cannot continue to be operating havens for criminal activities under the guise of beer parlours (p. 120).


Character Analysis and Role of Market Woman In Harvest of Corruption

Market Woman
We meet her in Wusa Market where she sells rice of various types- Gwari, Nupe and Uncle Ben's. She beats the price of Gwari rice with Ogeyi until they both agree on eighty naira per mudu. An illiterate woman, she speaks Pidgin English like Alice, the tea girl. She is used by the playwright to show how Ogeyi wisely uses her money in spite of the "little pay" which still compels everyone "to buy in the same market with everybody" (p. 70).



Character Analysis and Role of Mrs Obi In Harvest of Corruption

Mrs Obi

Chief's secretary, Mrs Obi is a lady of average height, "slim with a good figure." She has on a pair of eyeglasses and is said to be light-complexioned. She is aware that Ochuole is a staff of the Ministry and is close to the Minister but she still insists on the protocol of how to see the Minister, yet without pretending to "risk it" (p. 31). Although Chief has instructed that no one sees him before 12 noon, Mrs Obi violates this rule since she knows the relationship between her boss and young women. Through her we know a bit about the Minister as one who violates his own instructions, and one who fails to follow protocol once women are concerned. Apparently Mrs obi hears little, quite ignorant of what is going on in their office until Ayo gossips to her. Informed that "Madam Aloho" has been caught at the.airport for cocaine-pushing and is "pregnant for oga (Chief, Mrs Obi snaps her fingers and remarks: thought as much. I know that all these games that have been going on will one to light" (p. 79). She describes her boss as "poor man" even as she thinks that he deserves whatever is coming to him whatever a man sows, same shall he reap. I pity (p. 79). Yet when the Sss men come for Chief, she bursts into his office, panting. She senses trouble for Chief bat e latter to be calm about it until he knows that his time is up.


Character Analysis and Role of Nurse Halimatu In Harvest of Corruption

Nurse Galimatu
A nursing sister, Halimatu works with Doctor in the Wazobia Hospital in Mabu. As the play Scene Five is dressed in "well-standard white apron with a stopwatch and biros of two different
colours decorating the front left breast pocket She has three tribal marks on each of her cheeks, is dark-complexioned and of average height. She is a cautious nurse who speaks to patients in a gentle voice. She is unpretentious and apologizes to Aloho for not recognizing her when next the latter shows up. She is obedient to Doctor and comes to inform him of an emergency when Aloho is about to be handled in the abortion theatre. It is not clear if she precipitated the emergency or not; it is not clear if it had been a ploy since we had read some reluctance on the part of the Doctor to abort Aloho's baby.


Character Analysis and Role of okpotu In Harvest of Corruption

okpotu (p. 90) Twenty-two years old, he is dark complexioned and has three tribal marks on each of his cheeks. He is Aloho's younger brother who comes into Jabu to see Ogeyi from his village. He brings the news of the death of Aloho and the survival of her baby girl. Okpotu is sent to Ogeyi by his father who would want to know the name of the man who had impregnated his daughter. He speaks in a conciliatory tone which suggests that he is not a trouble maker. Rather than be emotional that his sister had died, he asks Ogeyi who is sobbing on hearing Aloho's death to pull herself together, saying, "We all miss her. What can we relations reach Ogeyi whose name she continued to call until she gave up the ghost. He is a grateful fellow who thanks Ogeyi for "all that you did for my sister while she was alive" (p. 92). Without his appearance, it would have been difficult to have the full perspective of the Aloho subplot of the play. namely that she later had a baby, never forgot ogeyi and died thereafter.


Character Analysis and Role of Registrar In Harvest of Corruption

Registrar
It is not clear if it is the same Registrar we meet at the cocaine trial as the one we meet at the Chief and his cohorts' assizes in Scene Eight. The Registrar we meet in Scene Three is a stout-looking, elderly man who is dressed in an "Elizabethan age" coat considered to be undersized for his build. Justice Odili asks him to call the first case of the day which he quickly does. Just for saying that the Prosecutor of the case is not present while the defendant's counsels are in court, Justice Odili takes umbrage at him. "Look here, Mr Registrar," Justice odili barks at him, "next time when I ask a question, I expecta direct answer" (p. 51). When next he reminds "My Lord" that the "state prosecutor came to your chamber this morn he is warned "to speak only when you are spoken to." Justice odili goes on to belittle him insisting that he should not "tell all that you see." The reason is that "you may not be able to explain the differences between what you actually see and what you imagined you saw" (p. 52). In Scene Eight the Judge treats him with more respect. There are no threats as he calls out Chief Haladu Ade-Amaka and five others. He reads out Chief's offences without any interruption and asks the jury if they are agreed on the verdict of "guilty" arrived at in the case of Chief and five others to which the Foreman of the Jury responds, "We are agreed'' (p. 116). It is the Registrar that addresses the accused persons and announces what they are convicted of: he it is too who seeks to know if any of them has reasons "why the court should not give you judgement according to the law"
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Roles of Chief Ade Haladu Amaka in Harvest of corruption

Character Analysis and Role of CHIEF ADE HALADU-AMAKA In Harvest of Corruption

CHIEF ADE HALADU-AMAKA
Ade Amaka (a ka. Chief)
Chief has a protruding stomach that his friends fondly call him "the pregnant chief. He has a round face which is said to be constantly covered with sweat "no matter the weather (p l4). He is said to breathe heavily whether he is awake or asleep. As for his gait, he "walks like a man who has an enlarged scrotum" (p. 14). This no doubt paints a picture of corruption, the image of social decay as represented in one person alone.

He is the Hon. Minister in charge of External Relations. We are never treated to the real nature of his work as a Minister. We see him run after girls, order food and drinks in Akpara Hotel which he also uses as the warehouse for his cocaine deals. He is painted as a spendthrift who asks Madam Hoha to "just serve yourself whatever you want and add the bills" (p. 14) immediately the hotel proprietress complains that he has not been "fair" to her.
He enjoys the warmth of women's company. At Akpara Hotel he orders for "two bottles of big stout," (p. 14) and two mortars ofishi ewu for him and for Ochuole. When Ochuole complains of money to settle her mother's hospital bill, he "draws his portfolio nearer to himself presses the buttons open and pulls out a bundle of money which he throws on her laps" (p. 16.) he sees Aloho, he indicates readiness to give her a job in his Ministry and schedules a meeting at 4 pm in his favourite hotel-Akpara Hotel. We later learn that he puts Aloho in the family way shortly after coming in contact with her Chief is both the grower of corruption and the reaper of its outcome. He briefs the Police Commissioner and Justice odili on basis that they will protect him against the dictates of the law. This way he runs his hard drug business unmolested, and when one of his carriers Aloho is caught at the airport, Justice Odili organizes a Kangaroo hearing and releases the culprit in a matter of days. He divests the Ministry of huge sums of money and converts government workers into his direct servants and agents in his nefarious deals. In the end, he receives a very long term. About to face the law, he loses his nerves. He asks the SSS people who come for him to give him "time to pull" himself together. Earlier, he had tried to be bold by asking them: "Who
are you and who the hell is your Chief that you should come into my office and behave as if the world is in your pockets?" (p. 89) The same loss of nerves is observed when the case is underway. "My Lord," Chief pleads, "I think I want to see a doctor. I am not feeling well'" (p109). When he is about to be sentenced, he pleads for leniency and informs the court that "my entire village and local government depend on me" (p. As if the jail for those who are not married, Chief further pleads, "Show mercy My Lord, I have a family p-l-e-a s e' (p. 118).
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Role and analysis of ochuole in harvest of corruption

Character Analysis and Role of OCHUOLE In Harvest of Corruption

2. OCHUOLE
ochuole is of average height who likes to wear "a tight mini skirt with an equally dark red designer shoes" (p. 1. She is said to be "gregarious... described by her friends as an extrovert" (p. l). Ochuole is free-willed, a bit on the talkative side. Her idea of a city is where "oranges" beg for plucking as soon as "they are ripe" (p. 2). By implication that is just what she has been doing sinee,arriving Jabu, the capital of Jacassa. Her "heydays in the university" (p. 2), to use the words of Aloho, were remarkable for what they were. Aloho was to tell ogeyi about Ochuole when she describes the latter as "that girl who was almost making herself a nuisance on the campus" (p. 8). She had been "that girl who caused a lecturer's suspension for leaking examination papers" (p. 8) Because ochuole's thinking is always centred on plucking "oranges" when she notices "they.are ripe", she has no time for "born-again stuff" (p. 3). She urges Aloho to spare her "anot of your crusade sermons She is one made to eat her cake "and still have it' (p. 3) She is open and clear her friend who arrives the city of Jabu still with traces morality, ochuol advises Aloho: "All you have to do is open your eyes wide not to look at Aso or Zuma rock o" (p. 4)
Ochuole promises Aloho a job and delivers it to her. She promises to "put a word for you (Aloho) to my Minister" because she is very sure "he will not say no" (p. 5)

. She is the Minister's mistress, his confidante, business partner and corrupt outlet. Ochuole is the most influential person in Chief's life who could easily extract money at will from him, and a
been notice too. Although Aloho's designation at work is Protocol Officer, she has simply been employed to be a drug carrier. "My duty", Ochuole informs Madam Hoha "is to convince
(Aloho) to play ball with him (Chief and then the usual commission keeps rolling inWhen she speaks to Chief on Aloho's need for a job, it is like a directive rather than a request "I have assured her that you will employ her" (p. 17)

Ochuole is an astute manipulator. Apart from manipulating Chiefto do her bidding, she subjects Aloho to do her own will. Such is the high-voltage manipulation over Aloho that the latter in tears narrates her ordeal to Ogeyi in these words: "Ogeyi, what pains me most is that in all this drama, I am not even given a chance to choose my own role to play" (p. 58). Almost as Aloho is given the new job, she is quickly asked to travel to the United States with an ill-fated suitcase. The newly employed is astonished and in a protesting voice asks her: "You never mentioned any trip to USA as part of my job. What is all this about?" Ochuole responds: "You wanted a job and here is
one" (p. 41). She cajoles Aloho with "Come on cheer up, now you
have it don't lose it" (p. 4). She reveals to Ogeyi later that she was "even lured into having affair with Chief (p. 58) probably by Ochuole which is why "the very memory ofochuole o the Chief gives me the nightmare" (p. 59)
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Role of Aloho in Harvest of Corruption


Roles and analysis of Aloho in Harvest of corruption
ALOHO
Aloho is the main character in the play. She is a young and naïve university female graduate desperately searching for a job. In her desperation, she ignorantly becomes part of a criminal network involved in drugtrafficking in spite of her friend’s constant warning to keep away from notorious Ochuole. Aloho is arrested and detained for drug trafficking. Upon her release, she suddenly realizes that she is pregnant for Chief Haladu- Amaka and eventually dies during child-birth. The author uses Aloho’s character to portray the ordeals of many young and jobless Nigerian graduates, how they are easily taken advantage of and lured into crime intheir desperation to eke out a living.
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Thursday, 18 February 2016

Summary of Harvest of corruption by Frank Ogodo

The play revolves mostly around Aloho, a native and jobless university undergraduate who is desperately searching for a job. She meets Ochuole, a notorious old school mate of hers who is the Chief Administrative Officer at the Ministry of External Relations. Ochuole offers to help her secure a job by speaking with the Honourable Minister of External Relations, Chief Ade Haladu-Amaka on her behalf. Aloho is offered a job as one of Chief Ade Haladu-Amaka’s protocol officers. However, she does not know that Ochuole is actually being used by the Chief to perpetrate criminal activities especially drug trafficking. Madam Hoha’s hotel is the hideout for these criminal activities.
Chief Ade Haladu-Amaka gives Aloho a package containing hard drugs to deliver in the United States of America. Aloho unknowingly accepts the package and gets arrested at the airport by drug law enforcement officers. Chief Ade Haladu-Amaka bribes the judge and the prosecutors to set Aloho free.
Upon Aloho’s release from detention, she discovers she is pregnant for Chief Ade Haladu-Amaka. She makes futile attempts to abort the pregnancy and eventually dies while giving birth to the child. Meanwhile, a honest police officer, ACP Yakubu initiates investigations into allegations of embezzlement of the sum of One point two billion naira embezzled by Chief Ade Haladu Amaka. Ayo, a clerk in the office of Chief provides necessary documents to the police to unravel the crime after receiving a bribe. Ogeyi, Aloho’s friend seeks justice by reporting Chief to the police. Justice prevails in the end as all the corrupt characters are punished and made to pay for the crimes committed.
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Wednesday, 17 February 2016

Analysis of the theme of Native son by Richard Wright

Class Oppression

Violence

Fear

Communism vs Capitalism

Hatred begets Hatred

                                                                 Analysis of the theme of Native son by Richard Wright
Racial Oppression

Wright’s exploration of Bigger’s psychological corruption gives us a new perspective on the oppressive effect racism had on the black population in 1930s America. Bigger’s psychological damage results from the constant barrage of racist propaganda and racial oppression he faces while growing up. The movies he sees depict whites as wealthy sophisticates and blacks as jungle savages. He and his family live in cramped and squalid conditions, enduring socially enforced poverty and having little opportunity for education. Bigger’s resulting attitude toward whites is a volatile combination of powerful anger and powerful fear. He conceives of “whiteness” as an overpowering and hostile force that is set against him in life. Just as whites fail to conceive of Bigger as an individual, he does not really distinguish between individual whites—to him, they are all the same, frightening and untrustworthy. As. result of his hatred and fear, Bigger’s accidental killing of Mary Dalton does not fill him with guilt. Instead, he feels an odd jubilation because, for the first time, he has asserted his own individuality against the white forces that have conspired to destroy it.
Throughout the novel, Wright illustrates the ways in which white racism forces blacks into a pressured—and therefore dangerous —state of mind. Blacks are beset with the hardship of economic oppression and forced to act subserviently before their oppressors, while the media consistently portrays them as animalistic brutes. Given such conditions, as Max argues, it becomes inevitable that blacks such as Bigger will react with violence and hatred. However, Wright emphasizes the vicious double-edged effect of racism: though Bigger’s violence stems from racial hatred, it only increases the racism in American society, as it confirms racist whites’ basic fears about blacks. In Wright’s portrayal, whites effectively transform blacks into their own negative stereotypes of “blackness.” Only when Bigger meets Max and begins to perceive whites as individuals does Wright offer any hope for a means of breaking this circle of racism. Only when sympathetic understanding exists between blacks and whites will they be able to perceive each other as individuals, not merely as stereotypes.




Racial Injusice

An important idea that emerges from Wright’s treatment of racism is the terrible inequity of the American criminal justice system of Wright’s time. Drawing inspiration from actual court cases of the 1930 s—especially the 1938 – 39 case of Robert Nixon, a young black man charged with murdering a white woman during a robbery—Wright portrays the American judiciary as an ineffectual pawn caught between the lurid interests of the media and the driving ambition of politicians. The outcome of Bigger’s case is decided before it ever goes to court: in the vicious cycle of racism, a black man who kills a white woman is guilty regardless of the factual circumstances of the killing. It is important, of course, that Bigger is indeed guilty of Mary’s murder, as well as Bessie’s. Nonetheless, the justice system still fails him, as he receives neither a fair trial nor an opportunity to defend himself. With the newspapers presenting him as a murderous animal and Buckley using the case to further his own political career, anything said in Bigger’s defense falls on deaf ears. Even Max’s impassioned defense is largely a wasted effort. The motto of the American justice system is “equal justice under law,” but Wright depicts a judiciary so undermined by racial prejudice and corruption that the concept of equality holds little meaning.



Class Oppression

Violence

Fear

Communism vs Capitalism

Hatred begets Hatred

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analysis on the use of symbols in Native son

Symbols
Symbols are objects, characters, figures, or colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts.

Mrs. Dalton’s Blindness

Mrs. Dalton’s blindness plays a crucial role in the circumstances of Bigger’s murder of Mary, as it gives Bigger the escape route of smothering Mary to keep her from revealing his presence in her bedroom. On a symbolic level, this set of circumstances serves as a metaphor for the vicious circle of racism in American society: Mrs. Dalton’s inability to see Bigger causes him to turn to violence, just as the inability of whites to see blacks as individuals causes blacks to live their lives in fear and hatred. Mrs. Dalton’s blindness represents the inability of white Americans as a whole to see black Americans as anything other than the embodiment of their media-enforced -stereotypes. Wright echoes Mrs. Dalton’s literal blindness throughout the novel in his descriptions of other characters who are figuratively blind for one reason or another. Indeed, Bigger later realizes that, in a sense, even he has been blind, unable to see whites as individuals rather than a single oppressive mass.

The Cross

The Christian cross traditionally symbolizes compassion and sacrifice for a greater good, and indeed Reverend Hammond intends as much when he gives Bigger a cross while he is in jail. Bigger even begins to think of himself as Christlike, imagining that he is sacrificing himself in order to wash away the shame of being black, just as Christ died to wash away the world’s sins. Later, however, after Bigger sees the image of a burning cross, he can only associate crosses with the hatred and racism that have crippled him throughout his life. As such, the cross in Native Son comes to symbolize the opposite of what it usually signifies in a Christian context.


Snow

A light snow begins falling at the start of Book Two, and this snow eventually turns into a blizzard that aids in Bigger’s capture. Throughout the novel, Bigger thinks of whites not as individuals, but as a looming white mountain or a great natural force pressing down upon him. The blizzard is raging as Bigger jumps from his window to escape after Mary’s bones are found in the furnace. When he falls to the ground, the snow fills his mouth, ears, and eyes—all his senses are overwhelmed with a literal whiteness, representing the metaphorical “whiteness” he feels has been controlling him his whole life. Bigger tries to flee, but the snow has sealed off all avenues of escape, allowing the white police to surround and capture him.
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Roles and analysis of all the characters of the native son


Bigger : Twenty years old, he is the eldest of the three children of Mrs Thomas who is a sinle parent.
He dropped out of school at the eighth grade, he had been at the reformatory school once for stealing auto tyres. now he keep company of other jobless friends, committing petty crimes
Bigger is limited by the fact that he has only
completed the eighth grade, and by the racist real estate practices that force him to live in poverty. Furthermore, he is subjected to endless bombardment from a popular culture that portrays whites as sophisticated and blacks as either subservient or savage. Indeed, racism has severely curtailed Bigger’s prospects in life and even his very conception of himself. He is ashamed of his family’s poverty and afraid of the whites who control his life—feelings he works hard to keep hidden, even from himself. When these feelings overwhelm him, he reacts with violence. Bigger commits crimes with his friends —though only against other blacks, as the group is too frightened to rob a white man—but his own violence is often directed at these friends as well. Bigger feels little guilt after he accidentally kills Mary. In fact, he feels for the first time as though his life actually has meaning. Mary’s murder makes him believe that he has the power to assert himself against whites. Wright goes out of his way to emphasize that Bigger is not a conventional hero, as his brutality and capacity for violence are extremely disturbing, especially in graphic scenes such as the one in which he decapitates Mary’s corpse in order to stuff it into the furnace. Wright does not present Bigger as a hero to admire, but as a frightening and upsetting figure created by racism. Indeed, Wright’s point is that Bigger becomes a brutal killer precisely because the dominant white culture fears that he will become a brutal killer. By confirming whites’ fears, Bigger contributes to the cycle of racism in America. Only after he meets Max and learns to talk through his problems does Bigger begin to redeem himself, recognizing whites as individuals for the first time and realizing the extent to which he has been stunted by racism. Bigger’s progress is cut short, however, by his execution.






Mary : Mary is the beautiful daughter of the chicago capitalist millionaire, Mr Henry Dalton she is the heiress to the big wealth of the dalton because she is the only child of the family. she is considered a major character in the novel not because of the number of her role or frequency of her appearance in the events making up story, but the centrality of her appearance. consciously identifies herself as a progressive: she defies her parents by dating a communist, cares about social issues, and is politically and personally interested in improving the lives of blacks in America. Though Mary’s intentions are essentially good, however, she is too young and immature either to commit fully to her chosen causes or to attain a sophisticated understanding of those people she seeks to help. Mary attempts to treat Bigger as a human being, but gives no thought to the fact that Bigger might be surprised and confused by such unprecedented treatment from the wealthy white daughter of his employer. Mary simply assumes that Bigger will embrace her friendship, as she supports the political cause that she believes he represents. She does not even think to wonder about any of his personal qualities, thoughts, or feelings, butmerely seeks to befriend him automatically, because he is black. For a tragically brief moment, Mary seems to recognize Bigger’s discomfort, a sign that perhaps one day she could be capable of greater understanding. Ultimately, however, Mary never gets the chance to perceive Bigger as an individual. Though Mary has the best of intentions, she treats Bigger with a thoughtless racism that is just as destructive as the more overt hypocrisy of her parents. Interacting with the Daltons, Bigger at least knows where he stands. Mary’s behavior, however, is disorienting and upsetting to him. Ultimately, Mary’s thoughtlessness actually ends up placing Bigger in serious danger, while the only risk she herself runs is mild punishment or disapproval from her parents for her disobedience. She does not stop to think that Bigger could easily lose his job—or worse —if he upsets her parents. Mary unthinkingly puts Bigger in the position of being alone with her in her bedroom, and her inability to understand him and the terror he feels at the prospect of being discovered in her room proves fatal.

Mr. and Mrs. Dalton - A white millionaire couple living in Chicago. Mrs. Dalton is blind; Mr. Dalton has earned a fortune in real estate. Although he profits from charging high rents to poor black tenants—including Bigger’s family—on Chicago’s South Side, he nonetheless claims to be a generous philanthropist and supporter of black Americans.


Jan Erlone - A member of the Communist Party and Mary Dalton’s boyfriend—a relationship that upsets Mary’s parents. Jan, like Mary, wants to treat Bigger as an equal, but such untraditional behavior only frightens and angers Bigger. Jan later recognizes his mistake in trying to treat Bigger this way and becomes sympathetic toward his plight. Jan becomes especially aware of the social divisions that prevent Bigger from relating normally with white society.


Boris A. Max - A Jewish lawyer who works for the Labor Defenders, an organization affiliated with the Communist Party. Max argues, based on a sociological analysis of American society, that institutionalized racism and prejudice—not inherent ethnic qualities create conditions for violence in urban ghettos.


Bessie Mears - Bigger’s girlfriend. Their relationship remains quite distant and is largely based upon mutual convenience rather than romantic love. Mrs. Thomas - Bigger’s devoutly religious mother. Mrs. Thomas has accepted her precarious, impoverished position in life and warns Bigger at the beginning of the novel that he will meet a bad end if he fails to change his ways.

Buddy Thomas - Bigger’s younger brother. Buddy, unlike his brother, does not rebel against his low position on the social ladder. In fact, he envies Bigger’s job as a chauffeur for a rich white family. As the novel progresses, however, Buddy begins to take on a more antagonistic attitude toward racial prejudice.


Vera Thomas - Bigger’s younger sister. Vera, like Bigger, lives her life in constant fear.



G. H., Gus, and Jack - Bigger’s friends, who often plan and execute robberies together. G. H., Gus, and Jack hatch a tentative plan to rob a white shopkeeper, Mr. Blum, but they are afraid of the consequences if they should be caught robbing white man. At the beginning of the novel, Bigger taunts his friends about their fear, even though he is just as terrified himself.


Mr. Blum - A white man who owns a delicatessen on the South Side of Chicago. Mr. Blum represents an inviting robbery target for Bigger and his friends, but their fear of the consequences of robbing a white man initially prevents them from following through on their plan.

Britten - A racist, anticommunist private investigator who helps Mr. Dalton investigate Mary’s disappearance. Buckley - The incumbent State’s Attorney who is running for reelection. Buckley is viciously racist and anticommunist


Peggy - An Irish immigrant who has worked as the Daltons’ cook for years. Peggy considers the Daltons to be marvelous benefactors to black Americans. Though she is actively kind to Bigger, she is also extremely patronizing. Doc - The black owner of a pool hall on the South Side of Chicago that serves as a hangout for Bigger and his friends. Reverend Hammond - The pastor of Mrs. Thomas’s church who urges Bigger to turn toward religion in times of trouble.

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Tuesday, 16 February 2016

Role of Mary Dalton in native son

Mary : Mary is the beautiful daughter of the chicago capitalist millionaire, Mr Henry Dalton she is the heiress to the big wealth of the dalton because she is the only child of the family. she is considered a major character in the novel not because of the number of her role or frequency of her appearance in the events making up story, but the centrality of her appearance .

Mary self-consciously identifies herself as a progressive: she defies her parents by dating a communist, cares about social issues, and is politically and personally interested in improving the lives of blacks in America. Though Mary’s intentions are essentially good, however, she is too young and immature either to commit fully to her chosen causes or to attain a sophisticated understanding of those people she seeks to help. Mary attempts to treat Bigger as a human being, but gives no thought to the fact that Bigger might be surprised and confused by such unprecedented treatment from the wealthy white daughter of his employer. Mary simply assumes that Bigger will embrace her friendship, as she supports the political cause that she believes he represents. She does not even think to wonder about any of his personal qualities, thoughts, or feelings, butmerely seeks to befriend him automatically, because he is black. For a tragically brief moment, Mary seems to recognize Bigger’s discomfort, a sign that perhaps one day she could be capable of greater understanding. Ultimately, however, Mary never gets the chance to perceive Bigger as an individual. Though Mary has the best of intentions, she treats Bigger with a thoughtless racism that is just as destructive as the more overt hypocrisy of her parents. Interacting with the Daltons, Bigger at least knows where he stands. Mary’s behavior, however, is disorienting and upsetting to him. Ultimately, Mary’s thoughtlessness actually ends up placing Bigger in serious danger, while the only risk she herself runs is mild punishment or disapproval from her parents for her disobedience. She does not stop to think that Bigger could easily lose his job—or worse —if he upsets her parents. Mary unthinkingly puts Bigger in the position of being alone with her in her bedroom, and her inability to understand him and the terror he feels at the prospect of being discovered in her room proves fatal.
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Roles and analysis of bigger thomas in the native son

Bigger : Twenty years old, he is the eldest of the three children of Mrs Thomas who is a sinle parent.
He dropped out of school at the eighth grade, he had been at the reformatory school once for stealing auto tyres. now he keep company of other jobless friends, committing petty crimes
Bigger is limited by the fact that he has only
completed the eighth grade, and by the racist real estate practices that force him to live in poverty. Furthermore, he is subjected to endless bombardment from a popular culture that portrays whites as sophisticated and blacks as either subservient or savage. Indeed, racism has severely curtailed Bigger’s prospects in life and even his very conception of himself. He is ashamed of his family’s poverty and afraid of the whites who control his life—feelings he works hard to keep hidden, even from himself. When these feelings overwhelm him, he reacts with violence. Bigger commits crimes with his friends —though only against other blacks, as the group is too frightened to rob a white man—but his own violence is often directed at these friends as well. Bigger feels little guilt after he accidentally kills Mary. In fact, he feels for the first time as though his life actually has meaning. Mary’s murder makes him believe that he has the power to assert himself against whites. Wright goes out of his way to emphasize that Bigger is not a conventional hero, as his brutality and capacity for violence are extremely disturbing, especially in graphic scenes such as the one in which he decapitates Mary’s corpse in order to stuff it into the furnace. Wright does not present Bigger as a hero to admire, but as a frightening and upsetting figure created by racism. Indeed, Wright’s point is that Bigger becomes a brutal killer precisely because the dominant white culture fears that he will become a brutal killer. By confirming whites’ fears, Bigger contributes to the cycle of racism in America. Only after he meets Max and learns to talk through his problems does Bigger begin to redeem himself, recognizing whites as individuals for the first time and realizing the extent to which he has been stunted by racism. Bigger’s progress is cut short, however, by his execution.



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Summary of the native son

The plot of the native son

The story begins in the one-room rat-infested apartment of the protagonist's family the 'Thomases' the protagonist, is sheduled to attend a job interview which is to serve as the lifeline for the poor thomas family.

But Bigger instead chooses to meet up with his friends to plan the robbery of a white man’s store.

Anger, fear, and frustration define Bigger’s daily existence, as he is forced to hide behind a facade of toughness or risk succumbing to despair. While Bigger and his gang have robbed many black-owned businesses, they have never attempted to rob a white man. Bigger sees whites not as individuals, but as a
natural, oppressive force a great looming “whiteness” pressing down upon him. Bigger’s fear of confronting this force. overwhelms him, but rather than admit his fear, he violently. attacks a member of his gang to sabotage the robbery. Left with no other options, Bigger takes a job as a chauffeur for the Daltons.
Coincidentally, Mr. Dalton is also Bigger’s landlord, as he owns a controlling share of the company that manages the apartment building where Bigger’s family lives. Mr. Dalton and other wealthy real estate barons are effectively robbing the poor, black tenants on Chicago’s South Side—they refuse to allow blacks to rent apartments in predominantly white neighborhoods, thus leading to overpopulation and artificially high rents in the predominantly black South Side. Mr. Dalton sees himself as a benevolent philanthropist, however, as he donates money to black schools and offers jobs to “poor, timid black boys” like Bigger. However, Mr. Dalton practices this. philanthropy mainly to alleviate his guilty conscience for exploiting poor
blacks. Mary, Mr. Dalton’s daughter, frightens and angers Bigger by ignoring the social taboos that govern the relations between white women and black men. On his first day of work, Bigger drives Mary to meet her communist boyfriend, Jan. Eager to
prove their progressive ideals and racial tolerance, Mary and Jan force Bigger to take them to a restaurant in the South Side. Despite Bigger’s embarrassment, they order drinks, and as the evening passes, all three of them get drunk. Bigger then drives
around the city while Mary and Jan make out in the back seat. Afterward, Mary is too drunk to make it to her bedroom on her own, so Bigger helps her up the stairs. Drunk and aroused by
his unprecedented proximity to a young white woman, Bigger begins to kiss Mary.
Just as Bigger places Mary on her bed, Mary’s blind mother, Mrs. Dalton, enters the bedroom. Though Mrs. Dalton cannot see him, her ghostlike presence terrifies him. Bigger worries that Mary, in her drunken condition, will reveal his presence. He covers her face with a pillow and accidentally smothers her to death. Unaware that Mary has been killed, Mrs. Dalton prays over her daughter and returns to bed. Bigger tries to conceal his crime by burning Mary’s body in the Daltons’ furnace. He decides to try to use the Daltons’ prejudice against communists to frame Jan for Mary’s disappearance. Bigger believes that the Daltons will assume Jan is dangerous and that he may have kidnapped their daughter for political purposes. Additionally, Bigger takes advantage of the Daltons’ racial prejudices to avoid suspicion, continuing to play the role of a timid, ignorant black servant who would be unable to commit such an act. Mary’s murder gives Bigger a sense of power and identity he has never known. Bigger’s girlfriend, Bessie, makes an offhand comment that inspires him to try to collect ransom money from the Daltons. They know only that Mary has vanished, not that she is dead. Bigger writes a ransom letter, playing upon the Daltons’ hatred of communists by signing his name “Red.” He
then bullies Bessie to take part in the ransom scheme. However, Mary’s bones are found in the furnace, and Bigger flees with Bessie to an empty building. Bigger rapes Bessie and, frightened that she will give him away, bludgeons her to death with a brick after she falls asleep. Bigger eludes the massive manhunt for as long as he can, but
he is eventually captured after a dramatic shoot-out. The press and the public determine his guilt and his punishment before his
trial even begins. The furious populace assumes that he raped Mary before killing her and burned her body to hide the evidence
of the rape. Moreover, the white authorities and the white mob use Bigger’s crime as an excuse to terrorize the entire SouthSide .

Jan visits Bigger in jail. He says that he understands how he terrified, angered, and shamed Bigger through his violation of the social taboos that govern tense race relations. Jan enlists his friend, Boris A. Max, to defend Bigger free of charge. Jan and Max speak with Bigger as a human being, and Bigger begins to
see whites as individuals and himself as their equal.

Max tries to save Bigger from the death penalty, arguing that while his client is responsible for his crime, it is vital to recognize that he is a product of his environment. Part of the blame for Bigger’s crimes belongs to the fearful, hopeless existence that he has experienced in a racist society since birth. Max warns that there will be more men like Bigger if America does not put an end to the vicious cycle of hatred and vengeance. Despite Max’s arguments, Bigger is sentenced to death. Bigger is not a traditional hero by any means. However,Wright
forces us to enter into Bigger’s mind and to understand the devastating effects of the social conditions in which he was raised. Bigger was not born a violent criminal. He is a “native son”: a product of American culture and the violence and racism that suffuse it.

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