Showing posts with label education. Show all posts
Showing posts with label education. Show all posts

Saturday, 18 February 2017

Analysis Of When This Carnival Finally Closes By Jack Mapanje

Analysis Of When This Carnival Finally Closes By Jack Mapanje



Not all 14-line poem is a sonnet; and this one by Jack Mapanje is a good example. It is a free verse that centred on politics and leadership. The diction is quite simple and rurual-like in nature with a beach setting in terms of words like “bamboo” “dancers” “bonfire” and more.

The voice of the poem foresaw what will become of the actions of a certain leader referred to as “brother”. The voice of the poem also saw how the leader’s colleagues will betray and mock his reign_ line 2-4: “…these very officers Will burn the scripts of the praises we sang to you And shatter the calabashes you drank from”. The voice of the poem believed the activities of the leader was unnecessary; in line 1 it was referred to as a “frothful carnival” because his officers were not faithful; they will go to the extent of burning his bamboo hut under the guise of giving him a “true traditional burial”.

According to line 6 “Become the accomplices to your lie-achieved world!” proves the voice of the poem is certain that the leader’s ways are not straight; he’s a corrupt leader. This tells the readers that the voice of the poem is an unbiased one who sincerely hits the nail in the head.

There are other noted poetic devices in the poem titled “When This Carnival Finally Closes” by Jack Mapanje; and they are as follows:


(1) “scripts of the praise” in line 3 is a metaphor
(2) “drumming veins” in line 2 is a symbolism
(3) “…a God? The devil!” in line 14 is an oxymoron
(4) “bamboo hut on the beach” in line 7 is an alliteration (5) “And at the wake new mask dancers will quickly leap” in line 11 is an imagery
(6) “What did he think he would become, a God? The devil!” in line 14 is a rhetorical question
(7) “And shatter the calabashes you drank from . Your/ Charms, these drums, and the effigies blazing will” in line 4-5 is an enjambment
The themes are betrayal, change, governance, politics, death, achievement, waste, corruption, etc. In terms of betrayal, the voice of the poem foresaw the leader’s betrayal. Change in the poem is seen from line 11-13: “And at the wake new mask dancers will quickly leap Into the arena dancing to tighter skins, boasting Other clans of calabashes…” Governance and politics can be considered the motivation for crafting this poem “When This Carnival Finally Closes” by Jack Mapanje. Death was not directly mentioned in the poem but was suggested with phrases such as “drumming veins dry” “giving their hero a true traditional burial”. The achievement of the leader is linked to corruption when the voice of the poem referred to it as “your lie-achieved world!”

As of this moment, whenever Malawian poets come to mind the first name to remember is David Rubadiri followed by Jack Mapanje. He was born 25 March 1944 in Mangochi District of Malawi. Jack Mapanje has made the list of African poets whose poetry landed them in prison; other African poets of the same predicament are Chris Abani, Wole Soyinka, etc. Jack Mapanje was put in prison by a ruling tyrant without charge. Copy and share
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Poetic Devices Employed In Gabriel Okara’s Piano And Drums

  Piano And Drums

 Poetic Devices Employed In Gabriel Okara’s Piano And Drums



To answer the above question, we’ll choose symbolism, personification and alliteration as our desired three poetic devices from Gabriel Okara’s poem “Piano And Drums”

#1) Symbolism which is the representation of a concept through symbols or underlying meanings of objects or qualities, appears in the poem from the title down to the context. “Drums” symbolizes Okara’s past uncivilized ways of life while “Piano” symbolizes the poet’s present and future existence in a westernized world. His symbolisms are further broadened with related musical dictions.

#2) There are instances of personifications in the poem where inanimates are given human attributes. In line 15 (groping heart/ in green leaves) actually, line 15 can also be named a synedoche. In line 4-5 “speaking of/ primalyouth and the beginning” which gives human quality to the drums. In line 17-18, the poet also personified the piano “piano/ solo speaking of complex ways”

#3) Alliterations in the poem are “the panther ready to pounce” in line 6, “leopard snarling about to leap” in line 7, “turn torrent” in line 9, “solo speaking” in line 18.

In brief, few other poetic devices are Simile in line 4 “like bleeding flesh” Assonance in line 3 “mystic rhythm” Imageries, etc.

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Modern Nursery Song by Frank Parkes

Modern Nursery Song

Modern Nursery Song by Frank Parkes

Little bird, little bird Can I come along with you? I like the smoothness of your flight I’d love to come with you And in your warm and cosy nest Play with your little ones.

Little child, little child My poor wings are not that strong I’d love to fly you to my nest And give you nuts and sweet, sweet things But I’ll take along your love so warm To my wee feathery ones

O huge bird, shining bird Can I come along with you? I like the brightness of your wing I’d love to fly with you And on the sunny sands to play With sun-beams on the surf

Get you gone, silly one I can’t waste my time on you My eyes watch out for bigger fry With power in their purse There’s a big, black owl will bear you free To where wee demons play Little owl, mushroom owl Can I come along with you?

©copyright: Frank Parkes 1932-2004

Frank Parkes was born in Ghana in 1932. His grandfather was a West Indian, his father a Sierra Leonean, and his mother a Fanti. He was educated in Sierra Leone and Ghana, and has had a varied journalistic and broadcasting career. A book of his poems, Songs from the Wilderness, was published in 1965.
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Analysis Of No Coffin No Grave By Jared Angira

No Coffin No Grave

Analysis Of No Coffin No Grave By Jared Angira

This poem is about the shameful murder of a tyrant. He was stabbed and shut in front of a night club; the poet sarcastically compared his murder shut to a gunshot representing a last respect to a warrior. Instead of the poem being a pure elegy, the poet created a sarcastic elegy which was beautified with irony and euphemism to show his dislike towards the wicked and selfish life led by the tyrant leader; it was so unfortunate for the dead politician who wished to have respected burial rite but ended with a belittled massacre. The content of the poem is straightforward as a result of the simple diction maintained by the poet. Line 1-7 shows where and how the tyrant was buried, line 8-17 describes the event of his murder by comparing the murder gunshot, and state of his car, line 18-28 tells of the unwell condition of the masses and their state of no-say because they lived in a lower class, line 29-end is about the politician’s empty wish for a befitting end.
Few of the themes in the poem are uncertainty of life and living, shameful rewards for selfishness and wickedness, poverty within the masses, extravagance and embezzlement. The death of the tyrant proved that life is uncertain and whatever anyone sows, he/she will reap.

NO COFFIN, NO GRAVE He was buried without a coffin without a grave the scavengers performed the post-mortem in the open mortuary without sterilized knives in front of the night club stuttering rifles put up the gun salute of the day that was a state burial anyway the car knelt the red plate wept, wrapped itself in blood its master’s the diary revealed to the sea the rain anchored there at last isn’t our flag red, black, and white? so he wrapped himself well who could signal yellow when we had to leave politics to the experts and brood on books brood on hunger and schoolgirls grumble under the black pot sleep under torn mosquito net and let lice lick our intestines the lord of the bar, money speaks madam woman magnet, money speaks madam we only cover the stinking darkness of the cave of our mouths and ask our father who is in hell to judge him the quick and the good Well, his dairy, submarine of the Third World War showed he wished to be buried in a gold-laden coffin like a VIP under the jacaranda tree beside his palace a shelter for his grave and much beer for the funeral party anyway one noisy pupil suggested we bring tractors and plough the land. ©copyright Jared Angira

According to wikipedia article, "Jared Angira (born 21 November 1947) is a Kenyan poet. He has been called "the country’s first truly significant poet. Angira studied commerce at the University of Nairobi from 1968 until 1971." Copy and Share
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The Poem Abiku by wole Soyinka

Abiku by Wole Soyinka

The poem Abiku by Wole Soyinka

In vain your bangles cast Charmed circles at my feet;  I am Abiku, calling for the first And the repeated time.  

Must I weep for goats and cowries For palm oil and the sprinkled ash?  Yams do not sprout in amulets To earth Abiku's limbs.  

So when the snail is burnt in his shell Whet the heated fragments, brand me Deeply on the breast. You must know him When Abiku calls again.  

I am the squirrel teeth, cracked The riddle of the palm. Remember This, and dig me deeper still into The god's swollen foot.  

Once and the repeated time, ageless Though I puke. And when you pour Libations, each finger points me near The way I came, where  

The ground is wet with mourning White dew suckles flesh-birds Evening befriends the spider, trapping Flies in wind-froth;   

Night, and Abiku sucks the oil From lamps. Mother! I'll be the Supplicant snake coiled on the doorstep Yours the killing cry.  

The ripes fruit was saddest;  Where I crept, the warmth was cloying. In the silence of webs, Abiku moans, shaping Mounds from the yolk. http://www.osunloaded.com/2017/02/the-poem-abiku-by-wole-soyimka.html
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The Poem "Still I Rise" by Maya Angelou

Still I Rise

The Poem "Still I Rise" by Maya Angelou, 1928 - 2014

You may write me down in history With your bitter, twisted lies, You may trod me in the very dirt But still, like dust, I’ll rise.

Does my sassiness upset you? Why are you beset with gloom? ‘Cause I walk like I’ve got oil wells Pumping in my living room.

Just like moons and like suns, With the certainty of tides, Just like hopes springing high, Still I’ll rise.

Did you want to see me broken? Bowed head and lowered eyes? Shoulders falling down like teardrops, Weakened by my soulful cries?

Does my haughtiness offend you? Don’t you take it awful hard ‘Cause I laugh like I’ve got gold mines Diggin’ in my own backyard.

You may shoot me with your words, You may cut me with your eyes, You may kill me with your hatefulness, But still, like air, I’ll rise.

Does my sexiness upset you? Does it come as a surprise That I dance like I’ve got diamonds At the meeting of my thighs?
Out of the huts of history’s shame I rise Up from a past that’s rooted in pain I rise I’m a black ocean, leaping and wide, Welling and swelling I bear in the tide.
Leaving behind nights of terror and fear I rise Into a daybreak that’s wondrously clear I rise Bringing the gifts that my ancestors gave, I am the dream and the hope of the slave. I rise I rise I rise.
   
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A poem for the death of Nelson Mandela by Maya Angelou

A poem for the death of Nelson Mandela by Maya Angelou

As the world comes to terms with the passing of Nelson Mandela, tributes from all corners of the globe continue to pour in, from South African citizenscelebrating the life of their "Tata," toworld leaders and iconic monuments.The national memorial service held in Soweto yesterday was attended by thousands paying their respects to a man who shaped the course of history and brought pride to the African continent. We were especially moved by this powerful poem by Dr Maya Angelou, the American author and poet best known for her autobiographical book I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, written as a tribute to the beloved anti-apartheid activist and elder statesman. Composed on behalf of the American people, the poem eloquently speaks to Mandela's importance to both South Africans and the rest of the world, referring to him as "David, armed with a mere stone, facing down the mighty Goliath."
Angelou was amongst the writers whose works kept Mandela going through his 27 year prison sentence on Robben Island, and he recited her poem"Still I Rise" at his presidential inauguration. The US State Department has circulated the poem in 15 different languages on behalf of Dr Angelou (the full text can be read on their website). Watch the video below which features Dr Angelou reciting the poem and sets her words to memorable images from Mandela's life:
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Sonnet 18

Sonnet 98

The Poem
Sonnet 18: Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?

By William Shakespeare

Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?

Thou art more lovely and more temperate:

Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,

And summer’s lease hath all too short a date;

Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,

And often is his gold complexion dimm'd;

And every fair from fair sometime declines,

By chance or nature’s changing course untrimm'd;

But thy eternal summer shall not fade,

Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st;

Nor shall death brag thou wander’st in his shade,

When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st:

   So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,

   So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.



Analysis Of Sonnet 18
Sonnet 18 is devoted to praising a friend or lover, traditionally known as the 'fair youth', the sonnet itself a guarantee that this person's beauty will be sustained. Even death will be silenced because the lines of verse will be read by future generations, when speaker and poet and lover are no more, keeping the fair image alive through the power of verse.

The opening line is almost a tease, reflecting the speaker's uncertainty as he attempts to compare his lover with a summer's day. The rhetorical question is posed for both speaker and reader and even the metrical stance of this first line is open to conjecture. Is it pure iambic pentameter? This comparison will not be straightforward.

This image of the perfect English summer's day is then surpassed as the second line reveals that the lover is more lovely and more temperate. Lovely is still quite commonly used in England and carries the same meaning (attractive, nice, beautiful) whilst temperate in Shakespeare's time meant gentle-natured, restrained, moderate and composed.

The second line refers directly to the lover with the use of the second person pronoun Thou, now archaic. As the sonnet progresses however, lines 3 - 8 concentrate on the ups and downs of the weather, and are distanced, taken along on a steady iambic rhythm (except for line 5, see later).

Summer time in England is a hit and miss affair weather-wise. Winds blow, rain clouds gather and before you know where you are, summer has come and gone in a week.The season seems all too short - that's true for today as it was in Shakespeare's time - and people tend to moan when it's too hot, and grumble when it's overcast.

The speaker is suggesting that for most people, summer will pass all too quickly and they will grow old, as is natural, their beauty fading with the passing of the season.

With repetition, alliteration and internal and end rhyme, the reader is taken along through this uncertain, changing, fateful time. Note the language of these lines: rough, shake, too short, Sometimes, too hot, often, dimmed, declines, chance, changing, untrimmed.

And there are interesting combinations within each line, which add to the texture and soundscape: Rough/buds, shake/May, hot/heaven, eye/shines, often/gold/complexion, fair from fair, sometimes/declines, chance/nature/changing, nature/course.

Life is not an easy passage through Time for most, if not all people. Random events can radically alter who we are, and we are all subject to Time's effects.

In the meantime the vagaries of the English summer weather are called up again and again as the speaker attempts to put everything into perspective. Finally, the lover's beauty, metaphorically an eternal summer, will be preserved forever in the poet's immmortal lines.

And those final two lines, 13 and 14, are harmony itself. Following twelve lines without any punctuated caesura (a pause or break in the delivery of the line), line 13 has a 6/4 caesura and the last line a 4/6. The humble comma sorts out the syntax, leaving everything in balance, giving life.

Perhaps only someone of genius could claim to have such literary powers, strong enough to preserve the beauty of a lover, beyond even death.


Declines (V): Third person present tense of the word “decline”, that is, (typically of something regarded as good) to become smaller, fewer, or less; decrease

Course (N): The way in which something progresses or develops

Untrimmed (Adj): Not having been trimmed or cut away

Thy (Pr): An older form of the word “your”

Eternal (Adj): Lasting or existing forever; without end

Fade (V): Gradually grow faint and disappear

Possession (N): The state of having, owning, or controlling something

Ow’st (V): Short form of the word “owest” which is, in turn, an older form of the word “owe”

Brag (V): Say something in a boastful manner

Wand’rest (V): Short form of the word “wanderest” which is, in turn, an older form of the word “wander”

Grow’st (V): Short form of the word “growest” which is, in turn, an older form of the word “grow”

Poetic Devices in Sonnet 18:

Rhyme scheme:

Sonnets typically occur in two types of rhyme schemes – in the pattern ABBA ABBA CDE CDE, known as the Petrarchan sonnet, or in the pattern ABAB CDCD EFEF GG, known as the Shakespearian sonnet. This sonnet is a typical Shakespearean one, as it follows the rhyme scheme mentioned above in its entirety without the slightest of deviation.

Rhetorical devices:

Apostrophe:

This rhetorical device is used when a poet addresses his or her poem to an absent audience. In this poem, the poet uses the device of an apostrophe when he addresses all his words to his beloved, whom we never see responding at any point in the poem.



Simile:

This rhetorical device is used when an overt comparison is made between two different things. In this poem, the poet uses the device of simile in line 1 itself when he makes a comparison between his beloved and a summer’s day and then says it is not an appropriate comparison to make.

Metaphor:

This rhetorical device is used when a covert comparison is made between two different things or ideas. In this poem, the poet uses the device of metaphor in line 4 when he compares summer with a landlord who leases out his property only for a short time. Again in line 5, he compares the sun with the eye of heaven. In line 6, he compares the color of the sun with that of gold. Finally, in line 9, he compares the youth and beauty of his beloved with the summer season.



Personification:

This rhetorical device is used to bestow human qualities on something that is not human. In this poem, the poet uses the device of personification with respect to death in line 11, when he endows death with the human ability to brag.

Central Idea of Sonnet 18:

Nature is beautiful, but it is subject to change. On the other hand, the beauty of the poet’s beloved is unchanging. However, that beauty is liable to disappear with the death of his beloved. That is why the poet composes a poem whose subject is that very beauty in order to immortalize it. He is sure that future generations will read this poem and appreciate the beauty of which it speaks.




Themes of Sonnet 18:


Mutability of nature:

The poet begins this sonnet by asking whether he should compare his beloved to a summer’s day, but does not wait for an answer. This is because he knows that his beloved’s beauty is unchanging and timeless, whereas nature can be both beautiful and terrifying, and that the change from one state to the other can occur at any point in time. One day the sun’s light can illuminate and invigorate the earth, while the next this light may fade away completely filling the sky with clouds and the possibility of precipitation. Both of these faces of nature are described aptly by the poet here.


Aging as a natural process:

While the poet clearly expresses his desire to immortalize the beauty of his beloved, he does not deny that she will age with time. The poet knows that the course of nature cannot be stopped, and that Time is a natural progression. Hence, the ravages that time commits on the human race are also inescapable. Therefore, he cannot stop his beloved from growing old or her physical body from decaying. However, one death or two does not mean that the entire human species will come to an end. Man will live on, and so will art. That is precisely why the poet chooses to immortalize his beloved through the medium of poetry.


The Theme of Self-reflexivity:

Self-reflexivity is the process by which an artist refers to his own art. That is exactly what the poet does in the last line of this sonnet by referring to his poem as “this”. He is intensely aware of the value that his own poetry can accord to something. He knows that his poetry can, in fact, make his beloved immortal. This kind of self-awareness is a sign of reflexivity, and it is very rare in works dating back prior to the 21st century. Hence this shows how modern Shakespeare was as a writer, and how he has influenced all later generations of writers as well.


The Tone of Sonnet 18:

The tone of this poem vacillates between pessimism and optimism. On the one hand, the poet talks about how nothing is permanent – how the weather changes, how the earth goes through various seasons one after the other, and how the human body must age and die. On the other hand, the poet also asserts the immortality of art. Art is, for Shakespeare, eternal. He knows that long after he is gone, his poetry will continue to be read and appreciated.

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Sunday, 12 June 2016

Analysis of The Blood Of a Stranger


The Blood Of a Stranger
                                                   
      Analysis of The Blood Of a Stranger
- Summary or Plot Account of The Blood Of a Stranger
- Themes of The Blood Of a Stranger
- List of Characters in The Blood of a Stranger
- Devices use in The Blood of Stranger
- Setting of The Blood Of a Stranger


PLOT ACCOUNT
Maligu, the Chief advisor to King Santigi Mando V, declares that an unidentified white man would be their village guest soon, as written him in a letter sent by his brother from the city. He seeks and finds the cooperation of Soko, the priest of the village shrine, to prophesy that the land should welcome this guest. This manipulated prophecy is against the existing spiritual ordinance of the community not to accept visitors, which has been observed since the war in the land. It
is a difficult injunction for the people to accept. To them, strangers represent illness, disease, and aggression. However, because Soko is the ordained priest of the village that has always interceded between them and their forefathers, the people have no reason to question or doubt his divination; their forefathers must have sent this vision. They prepare therefore to welcome the visitor. Kindo, chief warrior and son of the king, feels otherwise and senses something is wrong
because of the strange alliance between Soko and Maligu on this news. Knowing that the two are fraudulent and dishonest, Kindo becomes
suspicious of Soko's claim that he received the vision to admit the stranger into Mando land. The white man symbolically called Whitehead, arrives and show little or no respect for the culture and traditions of the land. Kindo forces him to order and a seed of discord between them is sown. Whitehead soon takes Maligu into confidence that his true motive of coming is the diamonds on their land. He has given the king a false impression he is in the land to cultivate a tobacco farm,
build a school and help the village from the proceeds of the tobacco farm. Indeed his actual purpose is to have the farmers unsuspectingly harvest the diamonds for him.


Themes of The Blood Of a Stranger
1] The theme of Colonialist Arrogance and expectation -
Whitehead comes to Mandoland with a blatant air of superiority with is why after two days of arrival inn the land he refuse to pay homage to king sangi until kindo forces him. This is reflective of colonial arrogance inn history. Even though the real colonial colonial mission is to exploit, They still engage the owner of the land in service labour to advance that interest and also expect to accord him honour and for him for pittance. It is also a show of colonial arrogance that makes whitehead introduce gin spirit drink in place of the peoples local drink mamapama which is congenial with their system, whereas whitehead's drink intoxicates
and makes the animal of the people.


2] The theme of Patriotism and Resistance to Oppression -
The patriootic zeal of kindo saves Mando Kingdom from the hands of whitehead. when whitehead refuses to accord kig santigi his deserved respect, it is kindo who restore it by putting him where he truly belongs - beneath the king's feet. Kindo constantly monitors maligu and soko when he suspects they are in league with whitehead. He also interrogates whitehead on why he chose Mandoland and not another place. when whitehead get the people drunk and the woman become sexually provocative, It is kindo that also calls whitehead and maligu to order. kindo it is that also unveils the grand design to steal mando's diamond wealth. in the end kindo does not only resist oppression, he stamps it out by killing whitehead.


3] The theme of Irony of Culture -
Its is a cultural irony that the culture whitehead disregards by introducing the people to alcohol, tobacco, and hard core hallucination drugs, he also finds in it a substance to manipulate the culture by relying on key traditional beliefs that favour his ominous ploy. For example, he seizes on the decree of the death for anyone who kills in peacetime, so as to trap kindo. He also describes diamond as evil stones that should be handed over to him in a land purification ritual he trumps up.



4] The theme of Moral decadence and corruption -
Some characters in the play fail moral test. Whitehead for instance attempts to rape a county virgin, Kindo's woman, Wara. The attempted rape of this country virgin in this play symbolizes the rape of the country' natural resources that the colonial government is essentially after. it should be emphasized too that whitehead's deft manipulation of mondo society is aided and abetted by the corrupt priest of the shrine, Soko and the chief assistant to the king, Maligu who are hoping to gain personal wealth by assisting whitehead. Their ignorance of whitehead's true motive - he wants diamonds, whereas they think he is there to grow tobacco - is reminiscence of the general exploitative track of colonial history in Africa. While beads, tobacco and cloths were among the initial innocent exchange in a barter of goods for palm oil and other product between Europeans and Africans, It did not take long before Africans themselves became the battered goods of choice by European (the slave trade), who used corrupt local leaders to accomplish their scheme.




5] The theme of Political social and spiritual decadence
The Corrupt leaders of the priest of the scared shrine and the chief adviser to the king, Maligu parodies the colonial legacy of political, social and spiritual decadence in sierra lone, the country. Over all, as tragic as the play (seemingly tragic for kindo) there is moral retribution in the end when whitehead is given a taste of his own recommendation - he is sacrificed rather than Wara. Thus the evil plotter becomes the sacrificial lamb of atonement and give hope for our flawed humanity

6]The Theme of The evils of African colonial encounter with the west -
The play successfully demonstrates the evils of the african colonial encounter with the west, without presenting the colonized as mere victims. kindo represent a major obstacle to whitehead's plan matching him wit for wit and always a step ahead of him he disciplines whitehead for not according deserved respect to king santigi and eventually kills him for his evil role in their land

7] The theme of Cultural Clash and erosion of customs

8] The theme of Justice always wins out against oppression

9] The theme of greed and ambition
The theme of greed and ambition runs through there play the characters involve in this. are whitehead , maligu and soko. The thr ee's sole ambition is to get rich. whitehead come to mandoland with dubious intent to cart the people's diamond wealth away and become extremely rich. The other two connnive with him to carry out his intention and also get rich
in the process. Greed sets in when they begin to distrust one another and hatching plans to eliminate each other for greater advantage on the diamond wealth

In short The Blood of A Stranger is a story of greed, selfish ambition, human deceit, corruption, and exploitation.



Role and List of Characters in The Blood of a Stranger

1. ROLE and Character analysis OF MALIGU in The Blood of a Stranger;

Maligu is the king advisor, he is refer to as the wise one because he is educated, he has lust for riches, maligu is one who say everything he sees, an attitude kindo doesn't like because it amounts to not having "backbone", Maligu is greedy and has an overambitious personality


2 ROLE and character OF SOKO in The Blood of a Stranger;
Soko is the village shrine priest league with Maligu to deceive the king and community with false prohecy in respect of the coming of a white man to Mandoland, soko is false, full of deceit and treachery, he is a "sincere liar" and very greedy, Whitehead calls him funny witch doctor because of his queer disposition.
He is a coward; despite his tough proposition on how to acheive their goals, he frets when it matters most: "i am not interested in getting money if there are too many dangers."

3. Role and character analysis of WARA in The Blood of a Stranger
wara is a stranger in mandoland too but has lived there long enough to detest being called stranger, and She is also in love with Kindo, She not born in Mandoland, her mother was taken prisoner by one of mando's warriors during the war; her mother ran away after giving birth to her.
Wara cautions kindo form doing anything which will anger the spirit, Wara is the only Kindo's woman that will be sexually assaulted by Whitehead. Maligu and soko lot abduction into a sack and then take to whitehead's compound. she fortunately escapes.



4. ROLES and Character analysis OF KINDO in The Blood of a Stranger
kindo is the son of the king and head of worriors of mondoland; a hunter and heir-apparent to the throne of Mando, Kindo is an upright defender of Mandoland; he is willing to defend his culture and his people even his own hurt. He is very young and only a boy when he fought in his first war.
Kindo is very sensitive instincts; feels evil in the air easily - very sensitive to a crooked situation, He is an ambitious character he is sturbborn and also impatient; Loves and protects the custom of his people, Kindo is boastful and keeps a dossier on people, He can speak reasonably like a wise elder. He is regid and unnfeeling; More concerned for the safety of his people.

5. Roles and Character analysis of SANTIGI MANDO V in The Blood of a Stranger

santigi mando v is the king of mondoland, father of kindo, He is an upright and a observer of traditional law and cultural norms. Santigi Mand V is manipulated into admitting a stranger into his domain, His rigid sense of justice propels him to banish his son, kindo from his land for killing parker.



6. Roles and Character analysis of PARKER in The Blood of a Stranger


Parker; Parker is an african who is the secretary, assistance, interpreter, adviser and the right hand man of whitehead, Parker often serves as whitehead's voice and solicitor advocate, he hates Maligu and does not trust him



Role and character analysis of WHITEHEAD in The Blood of a Stranger

Whitehead; This is the arrow head of the crisis in the play; every evil and a schemer. Whitehead is a crass, greedy, dictator who arrogantly believes he can deceive the entire land into granting him access to its diamond.
whitehead lies to the king and is people that he is in mandoland to cultivate tobacco.
He dies in the hand of kindo


SIMA
Sima; Another warrior of Mandoland


1st Man
praises the white man when his people are under the influence of head drug and gin spirit drink


Divices use in The Blood of Stranger
1] IRONY

2] SYMBOLISM AND ICONOGRAPHY

3]INCANTATION
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Saturday, 11 June 2016

Analysis of the poem "Vanity"

- Complete analysis of the poem "Vanity" by Biragol Diop

- Analysis of the poem "VANITY"

- Theme of the poem vanity

- Poetic Devices of the poem Vanity

- Questions on the poem Vanity

Complete Analysis of the poem "Vanity"
Analysis of the poem "vanity" by Birago Diop

Complete analysis of the poem "Vanity" by Biragol Diop

If we tell, gently, gently

All that we shall one day have to tell,

Who then will hear our voices without laughter,

Sad complaining voices of beggars

Who indeed will hear them without laughter?

If we cry roughly of our torments

Ever increasing from the start of things

What eyes will watch our large mouths

Shaped by the laughter of big children

What eyes will watch our large mouth?


What hearts will listen to our clamoring?

What ear to our pitiful anger

Which grows in us like a tumor

In the black depth of our plaintive throats?


When our Dead comes with their Dead

When they have spoken to us in their clumsy voices;

Just as our ears were deaf

To their cries, to their wild appeals

Just as our ears were deaf


They have left on the earth their cries,

In the air, on the water,

where they have traced their signs for us blind deaf and unworthy Sons

Who see nothing of what they have made

In the air, on the water, where they have traced their signs


And since we did not understand the dead

Since we have never listened to their cries

If we weep, gently, gently

If we cry roughly to our torments

What heart will listen to our clamoring,

What ear to our sobbing hearts?




Analysis of the poem "VANITY"

The title “vanity” portrays the folly of the living who in spite of having been bequeathed with many legacies have arrogantly and ignorantly failed to honour their dead ancestors. He laments as follows: “They have left on the earth their cries. In the air, on the water, where they have traced their signs for us, blind, deaf and unworthy sons, who see nothing of what they have made in the air, in the water where they have traced their signs”. In the poet’s view, much of the problems bedeviling the African society stem from our disregard for African tradition and over-dependence on the Western culture. He laments further: “If we cry roughly of our torments ever increasing from the start of things”. Birago Diop argues that the solution to Africa’s many problems lie within us.

He further expresses the African belief that dead ancestors have the ability to punish erring individuals and warns that if they are not respected or honoured, they would also not help the living in time of trouble- “And since we did not understand our dead, since we have never listened to their cries, if we weep gently, gently, if we cry roughly of our torments, what heart will listen to our clamourings, what ear to our sobbing hearts?”

Vanity is a poem of lamentation.


Theme of the poem vanity

1 The Theme of Abandonment of traditional ways or values

The poem comment on the tendency of africn education elite and other westernized africans to abandon african wisdom, values and general traditional way oof life. Because many of these people have been led into believing that african ways of life are primitive and barbaric the embrace foreign values and become uninterested in this regard as their own value . The poet condemns this in strong terms, dismissing those culpable in this regard as worthless offspring

2 wisdom of the ancestors is invaluable

The peom presents ancestors as a weservoir of sound teaching and wisdom which are sufficient to guide their offspring through the challenges of life these teaching and wisdom are describe as "cries" and "wild appeals". with such descriptions the poet suggests that the ancestors are not only in earnest, they are not interested in listening to their voices . The ancestors also leave behind them signs in the natural elements as guides to the living. The poem, therefore, suggests that the only thing that can prevent the living from becoming object of scorn and enjoy the patronage of the ancestors is to heed their words and signs.



3 pain and misery
-
Another important theme of the poem is that of Questions on the poem Vanity and pain. this theme is linked to the vanity of those who consider foreign ways superior and more desirable than africa's. Their action is cetayn to bring. about some adverse consequence, which include sadness, mockery should and pain. The poet observe that we would become sad complainers, attracting noting but others mockery should we fail to promptly address the renegade tendencies of our fellow westernized aficans. The same thing would happen if we merely lament over our pains and challenges instead of taking the right steps to get round them, which is to heed the wisdom of our forebears. The pain and misery referred
to are however not physical ones, but psychological ones. Some words which easily draw attention to the issues of pain and misery in the poem include "tumour", "pitiful anger", "plaintive throats", "complaining", "cry roughly", "weep", "clamouring" and sobbing hearts"



4 warning to renegades

Mood and Tone
The mood is that of worry with a corresponding tone of concern, condemnation, sarcasm and ridicule. He expresses his worry through a number of rhetorical questions.

Structure of the poem Vanity
Though written in stanzas and with some rhythm, the poem Vanity is a free verse poem as it does not have a consistent meter pattern.


Imagery
The poem contains powerful imagery. For instance, the title “Vanity” refers to the living’s folly over their disregard for the good works of dead ancestors which according to the poet are seen on land, in the water and in the air. Words like “voices of beggars” , “our large mouths”, “our ears were deaf” and “our plaintive throat” are employed as a form of rebuke or ridicule.

The poet also repeats some phrases and images to show how serious he is about the subject-matter of the poem. Examples- “Just as our ears were deaf”, “What eyes”, What ears” “What heart”.

Poetic Devices of the poem Vanity
 Rhetorical Question: This runs throughout the poem. It expresses the poet’s worry and emphasises his seriousness over the subject matter of the poem. Examples: “Who then will hear our voices without laughter?” “Who then will hear us without laughter?” “What eyes will watch our large mouth?” “What heart will listen to our clamouring?” “What ear to our sobbing hearts?”.

 Sarcasm: This is mocking humour. Examples: sad complaining voices of beggars; large mouth; plaintive throats

 Repetition:
This is seen throughout the poem. Example: What eyes will watch our large mouth? is repeated in the second stanza.

 Simile:
This is direct comparison using the words “like” or “as”. Example: “What ear to our pitiful anger which grows in us like a tumor”.
 Synedoche: A figure of speech that entails using a part to represent a whole
or a whole for a part. Example: “What hearts will listen to our clamouring?”

 Personification:
This figure of speech involves the attribution of human nature or character to animals, inanimate objects, or abstract notions. In Vanity, the poet gives life to dead ancestors through the use of personification. Examples: “When our Dead comes with their Dead, when they have spoken to us in their clumsy voices”.


Now you should be able to answer the following question on Vanity

Questions on the poem Vanity

1. Discuss the use of rhetorical question in the poem
2. Examine the poet's effective use of repetition
3. Closely examine the background and setting of the poem as they relate to its contents
4.Discuss the use of three poetic devices in vanity
5. Discuss the theme of pain and misery in the poem vanity
6. Examine the structure of the poem, What is its effect on the overall development of the poem
7. Identify and discuss one of the themes in the poem
8. Give a detailed account of the poem
9. Discuss the poem "vanity" against the back

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Friday, 10 June 2016

Harvest of Corruption by Frank Ogodo Ogbache

- Plot Account & Summary of Havest of Corruption - Roles Of All Characters in Harvest of Corruption -Setting of the play Harvest of Corruption -THEMES OF HARVEST OF CORRUPTION - Poetic Techniques or literary device in the poem At this text you should be able to answer the following question 2. Discuss in full the theme of corruption and the abuse of office 3. Examine in full the motif of planting and Harvest of Corruption in Harvest of Corruption 4. Identify three of the dramatic feature used in the play and fully examine them 5. Explain fully how the antics of the madma tally with the goings-on in jacasa 6. Discuss Chief Haladu's activities as a 'pen-robber'

Analysis of Havest of Corruption


Plot Account

Harvest of Corruption is centred on the acts of public servants and Madam Hoha in a country called Jacassa. The principal public servant in the play is Chief Haladu Ade Amaka, the minister of external relations. know for his unusually large tummy, he is a glorification of corruption, unpatriotic fervour and sexual perversion . He maintainns a retinue of girls whom he philanders with and who also do cocaine trips for him . He is an exploiter of the state who robs her blind in an act popularly referred to as "Pen-robbery. Others who aid and abet him in these nefarious activities are the police commissioner who serves at the police headquarters inn Darkin; Justice Odili a round and robust man with a pot belly, Ochuole who organizes girls for cheif Ade-Amaka, including those who bear cocain for him; Aloho a girl who has just been offered a job in chief's office as a protocol officer; madam hoha whose restaurant/hotel is a haven for criminal activities under the guise of beer parlours; and Defence Counsel who fought hard to defend the corrupt chief. Massed against this pack of corrupt individuals are Ogeyi, the vituous friend of Aloho; ACP Yakubu who sees to it that chief pays for his barefacedness ; Inspector Inaku who obtains at a fee the relevant documents for prosecuting Chief from Ayo the clerk in the office of the Honorable Minister; Doctor, who would not abort Aloho's pregnancy for chief haladu ade-amaka; Prosecution Counsel who doggedly proscuted chief; Costable Ojo; and Customs Officer who refer aloho's drug-case to the Jacassa Drug Law Enforcement Agency (JDLEA)
The play revolves mostly around Aloho, a naïve and jobless university undergraduate who is desperately searching for a job. She meets Ochuole, a notorious old school mate of hers who is the Chief Administrative Officer at the Ministry of External Relations. Ochuole offers to help her secure a job by speaking with the Honourable Minister of External Relations, Chief Ade Haladu-Amaka on her behalf. Aloho is offered a job as one of Chief Ade Haladu-Amaka’s protocol officers. However, she does not know that Ochuole is actually being used by the Chief to perpetrate criminal activities especially drug trafficking. Madam Hoha’s hotel is the hideout for these criminal activities. Chief Ade Haladu-Amaka gives Aloho a package containing hard drugs to deliver in the United States of America. Aloho unknowingly accepts the package and gets arrested at the airport by drug law enforcement officers. Chief Ade Haladu-Amaka bribes the judge and the prosecutors to set Aloho free. Upon Aloho’s release from detention, she discovers she is pregnant for Chief Ade Haladu-Amaka. She makes futile attempts to abort the pregnancy and eventually dies while giving birth to the child. Meanwhile, a honest police officer, ACP Yakubu initiates investigations into allegations of embezzlement of the sum of One point two billion naira embezzled by Chief Ade Haladu Amaka. Ayo, a clerk in the office of Chief provides necessary documents to the police to unravel the crime after receiving a bribe. Ogeyi, Aloho’s friend seeks justice by reporting Chief to the police. Justice prevails in the end as all the corrupt characters are punished and made to pay for the crimes committed. Summary of Harvest of Corruption

Roles Of All Characters in Harvest of Corruption


1.Role of ALOHO in Harvest of Corrption Aloho is the main character in the play. She is a young and natïve university female graduate desperately searching for a job. In her desperation, she ignorantly becomes part of a criminal network involved in drugtrafficking in spite of her friend’s constant warning to keep away from notorious Ochuole. Aloho is arrested and detained for drug trafficking. Upon her release, she suddenly realizes that she is pregnant for Chief Haladu- Amaka and eventually dies during child-birth. The author uses Aloho’s character to portray the ordeals of many young and jobless Nigerian graduates, how they are easily taken advantage of and lured into crime in their desperation to eke out a living.

2.Role of OCHUOLE in Harvest of Corruption

Ochuole is Aloho’s classmate in the University. She is portrayed as notorious and wayward. Ochuole works as Chief Administrative Officer at the Ministry of External Relations. She aids Chief’s sexually immoral lifestyle by providing him with ladies. She lures Aloho into drugtrafficking in the guise of helping her to secure a jobwith the Ministry of External Relations.
3.

Role of CHIEF ADE HALADU-AMAKA in Harvest of Corruption

He is the Minister of External Relations and the epitome of corruption in the play. He is the ring leader of acriminal network of drug peddlers. He engages inbribery, large scale embezzlement of public funds,sexual immorality and fraud. His character is ironical. As a Minister of External Relations, he is supposed to promote his country’s image in the comity of nations. On the contrary, Chief Haladu- Amaka through his many vices portrayed his country in a bad light.

4. Role of OGEYI in Harvest of Corruption

Ogeyi is Aloho’s friend and confidant. Aloho lives with Ogeyi in her small apartment in Pannya. She tries to discourage Aloho from taking Ochuole’s job offer and warns her to keep away from Ochuole. She seeks justice for Aloho by reporting Chief to the police. She is the voice of reason in the play.

5. Role of MADAM HOHA

Madam Hoha is the proprietress of Akpara Hotel. The hotel is where Chief perpetuates his criminal activities.She is sentenced to ten years imprisonment with hardlabour along with Ochuole and her hotel was sealed.

6. ACP YAKUBU

Yakubu is an Assistant Commissioner of Police. He stands out as an incorruptible and honest police officer. He withstood pressures from his boss, the Commissioner to stop investigating Chief’s activities at the Ministry of External Relations. His investigations led to the arrest and prosecution of Chief, Ochuole, Madam Hoha, the Commissioner of Police and the corrupt Justice Odili.

7 Roles of Alice (Tea Girl)

She is the tea girl in the office of the secretary to the Minister of External Relations, she speaks Pidgin English, The first time she speaks she accuses Ayo, the Clerical Officer, of being gossipy for which latter warns and taunts her.

8 Roles of AYO

We are introduce to Ayo as a clerk in the Ministy of External Relations. He is a bare-face liar who claims not to knw about the embezzlement in the ministry until he is bribe. He is slim and slim and hungry-looking

9 Commissioner of Police

He is said to be tall "a tall athletic young man of about forty years." He is "dark in complexion, he has thin and slender fingers" and possesses "red lips with black spots" His teeth is said to be broken and coloured probably because "he is a chain smoker and an alcohol addict . Chief Haladu is visit him just as he did justice odili with a lot of goodies
10 Constable Ojo 11 Customs Officer 12 Defence Counsel 13 Doctor 14 Inspector Inaku 15 Judge 16 Lady 17 Madman 18 Madam Hoha 19 Market Woman 20 Mrs Obi 21 Nurse Halimatu 22 Okpotu 23 Prosecution Counsel 24 Registrar

Setting of the play Harvest of Corruption

The play is set in Jabu, a fictional Nigerian city. Much of the action takes place in different locations- ogeyi’s apartment in Pannya, Madam Hoha’s hotel at Darkin, Police Headquarters at Darkin, Ministry of External Relations in Maisama, and the Court Room.The play was written during the period of transition to democratic government.

THEMES OF HARVEST OF CORRUPTION


1. Retribution This is the central theme of the play. The main idea is that a man reaps what he sows. All the corrupt characters are brought to book in the end. Chief is convicted and sentenced to twenty-five years in imprisonment with hard labour and ordered to refund the embezzled funds. This punishment is his harvest of corruption. The humiliation suffered by Aloho for drug trafficking, her pregnancy and death also portray her harvest of corruption. Ochuole and Madam Hoha are sentenced to ten years in imprisonment with hard labour while Madam Hoha’s hotel is also sealed. This is their harvest of corruption. Justice Odili and the Commissioner of Police are sentenced to twenty years in imprisonment for receiving bribe. Ayo, the clerk is also punished as he is sentenced to five years imprisonment for receiving a bribe.
2. Corruption The author illustrates the bribery, large-scale embezzlement in official quarters, drug trafficking, sexual immorality perpetuated by highly placed personalities who are supposed to be policy makers and law enforcement officers. Frank Ogodo Ogbeche shows how corruption permeates government institutions and every fabric of the society as well as the devastating effect corruption has on our everyday life.
3. Betrayal of Public Trust Chief Haladu-Amaka, the Minister of External Relations betrayed the trust reposed in him by virtue of the public office he holds through large-scale embezzlement of public funds, forgery, fraud and bribery. The author advocates a political, social and moral re-birth.

symbols used in the play " Harvest of Corruption"


1. Chief Haladu Ade Amaka Chief Haladu Ade Amaka and his activities symbolizes Corruption
2. The suffering of Aloho The suffering of Aloho symbolizes the suffering of the masses in the country
3. Aloho's Dream Aloho 's dream , it is a nightmare , in the dream she saw a coffin in front of her this symbolizes her death
4 The Madman The appearance of the dirty and tattered mad man carrying a heavy boundle of tightly wrapped bits and pieces of junks drooping over his face symbolizes the country " JACASSA " in need of " sanitation " or enviromenta Only ACP Yakubu was able to understand the symbolism of the mad man' s appearance
The use of symbols in harvest of corruption

Poetic Techniques or leterary device in the poem


The use of symbols in harvest of corruption 1]The use of Antithesis- 2]The use of Biblican allusion- 3]The use of Apostrophe- 4]The use of Alliteration- 5]The use of Anaphora- 6]The use of Oxymoron- 7]The use of Personification- 8]The use of Metaphor- 9]The use of Iversion- 10]The use of Dramatic Mnologue- 11]The use of Rhtorical question- 12]The use of Sarcasm- 13]The use of Prefiguration- 14]The use of Synecdoche- 15]The use of Cotraction-
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Thursday, 9 June 2016

Solution to the problem of over population and it consequences

How can nigeria government solve the problem of large population and the consequences of it.

How the problem of over population can be solve

Consequences of  Large Population

Consequences of  Over Population

Below are the most effective measures which can be employed to control population growth

1. Education
People, particularly those in reproductive age group, should be educated about the advantages of a small family and ill-effects of large families and overpopulation. In this, mass media like radio, television, newspapers, magazines, posters etc. and educational institutions can play important role.

Government should provide free and compulsory primary education to the children below the age of 14 years. In China, there is a legislation making “basic primary education free, compulsory and universal.”

2. Age of marriage should be raised:
Demographers explain that postponement of female marriage age from 18 years to 20 or 22 years would bring down the birth rate by 20 to 30 per cent. Even a year’s postponement in each age group will decrease total fertility rate much less than the present 2.68 per cent for the country. But according to an ICMR report, about 49 per cent women in India are married before the legal age of 18 years.

3. Family planning methods:
India was the first country to adopt family planning (in 1951) as the government sponsored programme. But after the efforts of Indian government for about 50 years, birth rate in India has come down only slightly (only from 41.7 in 1951 to 28.3 in 1997 per 1,000 per year). This showed that voluntary family planning programme was not very successful.

In 1976, Indian government thought of introducing a programme of compulsory sterilization which required one parent to undergo sterilization after a couple had produced two children. But due to public resistance, this programme was again changed to voluntary programme.

India’s goal of two children per woman seems to be more difficult. Most of the countries stress for zero population growth by bringing down the population growth rate to replacement rate (average number of children per couple which will just replace parents).

Table 4.7 shows that family planning programmes are not much successful in developing countries but highly successful in developed countries even without any government support. In India, the slogan of Family Planning Programme is “Hum Do Hamare Do” but many couples, mostly the young, urban and working one have adopted even “one child norm”

5.Medical Facilities
Medical Facilities
One big drawback of developing countries is that of limited and highly centric medical facilities. Because of the high rural-urban divide in developing countries, availability of good hospitals and doctors is limited to urban centers thus resulting in high infant mortality rate in rural areas. Rural people, in order to ensure that at least some of their kids survive, give birth to more and more kids thus contributing to the population growth. If provided with optimum medical facilities population rate will almost certainly decline.

6. Legislative Actions

Legislative Actions
Not much result can be achieved from these if family planning and use of contraception remains optional instead of mandatory. Strict legal steps are required for child marriage, education, abolition of child labor and beggary and family planning to reap significant benefits from it. Proper enforcement of laws related to child labor, slavery and beggary will ensure that parents don’t sell their children or send them out to work thus forcing them to raise lesser number of kids.

7.Providing Incentives

Providing Incentives
Incentives have proved to be an efficient policy measure in combating most development issues including population. Providing a health, educational or even financial incentive can be a highly effective population measure. There are certain incentive policies like paying certain some of money to people with not more than two kids or free or discounted education for single child etc. which are in place in most developing countries facing population related challenges and has also proved to be a useful measure

8. Spread Awareness

Spread Awareness
People need to be told and made to understand the consequences of having too many children. Government and non-government institutions can carry awareness campaigns informing people how they will be unable to provide good nutrition, education or medical facilities to their children if they have too many. Population is also a reason for illiteracy and diseases and malnutrition and the negative effects of it are required to be communicated to the general public to expand their reasoning and understanding.

9.Women Empowerment
In most developing countries, the women folks are not considered equivalent to men in terms of force and might. Such opinions are extremely common in Islamic countries and even India and Bangladesh. Gender discrimination is a major reason for population growth. People keep giving birth to kids in order to have more sons than daughters. Empowering woman with a say in matters concerning them like child birth and educating them to fight against discrimination will ensure a healthy and aware society.

10. Eradicate Poverty

Eradicate Poverty
Why most poor countries have highest population growth instead of rich ones. Poverty has a direct relation to the population growth. In developing countries of Asia and Africa, child labor, slave trading and human trafficking is highly prevalent. African countries for example still have maximum reporting of slave trading though trading of humans is legally banned everywhere in the world. People give birth to kids and sell them to rich people who in turn employ these kids in various laborious and unethical tasks. If not sell, these parents force their kids to beg or work at a very tender so as to earn some extra money for the family. These people believe that more kids mean more hands for begging and work and thus more money. Without concrete measures for growth and poverty eradication, other methods of population control may prove to be ineffective.

11.Easy and Cheap availability of Contraceptives

Easy and cheap availability of Contraceptives
Ensuring that people have easy and cheap access to contraception tools will help avoiding cases of unwanted pregnancies and births. Every state owned hospital should be made to provide cheaply efficient birth control medicines or surgeries since poor people have neither the means not awareness to use contraception. Use of condoms and contraceptives must be advertised and promoted along with ensuring cheap and ready access to these. Contraceptives do not only prove to be an important population control measure but also prevents spreading of sexually transmitted diseases like AIDS thus ensuring small healthy families.

12. Development

Development
Why the enormous population and the increasing rate of it is the biggest challenge faced by the developing nations of Africa and Asia while the same is a little or no threat in countries like America, Europe or Japan. Lack of Development implies high poverty, high illiteracy, high discrimination, lack of awareness, lack of medical facilities and thus in turn increased population growth. Any economy is termed developed is its population is non-discriminated and just. By reducing discrimination between gender and class and ensuring development of the whole population instead of a given segment of society would eliminate the challenge of population growth for once.

Consequences of  Large Population

Consequences of  Over Population are:

1.Depletion of Natural Resources:

The effects of overpopulation are quite severe. The first of these is the depletion of resources. The Earth can only produce a limited amount of water and food, which is falling short of the current needs. Most of the environmental damage being seen in the last fifty odd years is because of the growing number of people on the planet. They are cutting down forests, hunting wildlife in a reckless manner, causing pollution and creating a host of problems. Those engaged in talking about overpopulation have noticed that acts of violence and aggression outside of a war zone have increased tremendously while competing for resources.

2.Degradation of Environment:

With the overuse of coal, oil and natural gas, it has started producing some serious effects on our environment. Rise in the number of vehicles and industries have badly affected the quality of air. Rise in amount of CO2 emissions leads to global warming. Melting of polar ice caps, changing climate patterns, rise in sea level are few of the consequences that we might we have to face due to environment pollution.

3. Conflicts and Wars: Overpopulation in developing countries puts a major strain on the resources it should be utilizing for development. Conflicts over water are becoming a source of tension between countries, which could result in wars. It causes more diseases to spread and makes them harder to control. Starvation is a huge issue facing the world and the mortality rate for children is being fuelled by it. Poverty is the biggest hallmark we see when talking about overpopulation. All of this will only become worse if solutions are not sought out for the factors affecting our population. We can no longer prevent it, but there are ways to control it.

4. Rise in Unemployment: When a country becomes overpopulated, it gives rise to unemployment as there fewer jobs to support large number of people. Rise in unemployment gives rise to crime as people will steal various items to feed their family and provide them basic amenities of life.

5. High Cost of Living: As difference between demand and supply continues to expand due to overpopulation, it raises the prices of various commodities including food, shelter and healthcare. This means that people have to pay more to survive and feed their families

7. Water supply. Water is one of the basic elements of live, and it is needed to preserve the balance of every ecosystem. It cools down and cleanses the environment and is used by plants and animals to carry out vital functions. As human population increases, so does the consumption of water. In the past fifty years, the per capita availability of fresh water has decreased by one third.* Fresh water supply is a problem in most of the developing countries, especially those located in arid climates such as in Africa, South America and Asia. In some African countries, fresh water needs to be carried daily from sources more than two hours walking distance. Water supply is an issue in urban areas as well. In Beijing, the water table falls down with as much as two meters annually.*

8. Loss of biodiversity. All of the previously described effects of overpopulation on the environment lead to the destruction of the natural habitat of many wildlife species. The natural flora and fauna have been under constant pressure to adapt to a quickly changing environment. Since they have been unable to do so, they have been displaced from their natural ecological niche. The constant clearing of the Amazon forest has had devastating effect on many rare tropical species. It has been estimated that 10% of the species in the region have become extinct

9. Soil Degradation. Population growth results increases the demand for food production. Since the arable land in many of the overpopulated regions is limited, farmers begin to cultivate dry, hilly, nutrient-poor areas that are not very suitable for farming. Exploiting such lands makes them easily susceptible to erosion and loss of nutrients. For example, in search for farmland in Indonesia, peasants have been planting their crops on steep slopes. As a result, almost one half of Java's land is now in danger of erosion.* Globally, the statistics are even more frightening. It is estimated that 1.2 billion hectares of land, approximately the size of Europe, U.S. and Mexico combined, have lost much of their agricultural output capability in the last 50 years.*

10. Water pollution. The problem with water is not only overconsumption, but also pollution. "More than 95% of urban sewage in developing countries is discharged untreated into the nearest waterway or field."* The main contributors to water pollution are factories and open mines, discarding waste water with heavy metals, toxic substances and solid waste, which are virtually impossible to purify. The situation is even worse when it comes to ocean exploitation and pollution. Overfishing changes the balance in coastal ecosystems and decreases fish populations. Sometimes it might even lead to extinction of certain marine species. Overfishing also damages coral reefs, because it allows algae to overgrow them. It turns out that the ocean is "the ultimate garbage dump "* because eventually all of the sewage, sediment from forest clearing, fertilizer and pesticide run-off flow into it. It is important to preserve the ocean, not only because it is an important source of food, but also because it plays a major role in climate regulation. The circulation of cold and warm water protects the earth from extreme temperature fluctuations. In addition, oceans absorbs between 30 and 40% of the CO2 given off as a result of human activity, thus keeping global warming at stake.

11.Deforestation. The search for more farmland causes other damaging agricultural practices such as slash-and-burn cultivation. Basically, a forest area is burned and converted into pasture, but due to poor soils, it looses its productivity in about three years.* This initiates a vicious circle which results in the deforestation of large areas, mostly in tropical regions. Deforestation is also caused by the use of wood as fuel, since 9 out of 10 African households use wood for cooking and heating. This is the reason why Ghana lost almost a third of its dense forest from 1938 to 1980.* In addition, the building of roads and the expansion of residential areas have contributed to the loss of primary forest.

How can nigeria government solve the problem of large population and the consequences of it.

How the problem of over population can be solve

Consequences of  Large Population
Consequences of  Over Population 

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Sunday, 24 January 2016

Full list of Characters in Last Days in Forcados High School with details


Characters:
1. Jimi Solade:
He is the main character in the novel. He is intelligent and very good in sports. He is also the health prefect, athletic club captain and best footballer. He won prizes such as the
best Chemistry student and the best athlete.
He is a member of Tiger house. He won the 100m race and also won a scholarship to study Electrical Engineering.


2. Wole Solade:
He is the brother of Jimi Solade. He behaved in a very bad manner. He engaged in the sale and use of hard drugs. His father disliked him because of his bad behavior. He dropped out of school because of his bad behaviour. He
broke into the school laboratory and stole the new microscope and other stuff.



3. Mrs Solade:
A soft spoken woman and mother of Jimi, Wole and Femi Solade. She died of ovarian cancer. She took side with Wole when her husband made bad remarks about him.

4. Mr Solade:
Father of Femi, Wole and Jimi.

5. Efua Coker:
A tall, slender girl with large eyes and long eyelashes and a masculine voice. She went further to study medicine. She
was a member of a group EGG whose aim was to cater for women and children.
Her classmates nicknamed her ‘’The Witch’’. Jimi Solade nicknamed her ‘’baby doll’’. She was a close friend of Miss Agbenenovi; a youth corper posted to Forcados High School.
She wrote a controversial letter to Miss Novi. She stood up for Jimi when everyone taught he masterminded the stealing of the new microscope and other stuff. She was expelled from St. Catherine’s.


6. Nene Ekpo:
A plump girl with short plaits and a round gentle face. A good friend of Jimi, Ansa and Efua. She leaked Efua’s controversial letter to Jimi. Her father was a pastor. Her youngest brother attended Mother’s Joy Nursery School. She was the singing lead in the cultural dance drama “oluronbi”. She went further to study Accountancy.

7. Ansa:
A good friend of Jimi and Nene. He likes painting and shared
this interest with Efua. He desired to study Architecture. He accommodated Jimi when Wole invited his bad mannered
friends to Mr Solade home. He was not happy at the end of first term because he failed his exams and dreaded what his mother would say. He went further to study Architecture.



8. Mr Mallum:
A small, wiry man with an odd accent. He is the principal of Forcados High School.

9. Jolly Stephen:
A big boy, an arts student. He liked wearing chains on his trousers and trainers instead of sandals. He made photocopies of a letter Efua wrote to Miss Novi.

10. Seyi Lawal:
He is the Head Boy of Forcados High School.

11. Risikat:
Mrs Solade housemaid. She informed Jimi that his mum fainted.


12. Mama Silifat:
She sold puff-puff and akara outside the school. She was fond of Jimi and called him Akinjimi and omo mi.

13. The Rhymers:
A group of five boys. They composed Hip-Hop music.

14. Mr Izaegbegbe:
He is Ansa’s father.

15. Icheen Igbo:
He took the second position in the 100m race.

16. Femi Solade:
The eldest brother of Jimi Solade.

17. Mr Edet:
He taught Chemistry at Forcados High School.

18. Samu:
He owned an ice cream bar.

19. Teacher Bade:
The students nicknamed him “cane”.

20. Miss Coker:
The music teacher at Forcados High School.

21. Mrs Alli:
Efua’s aunt.

22. Ada:
The Head Girl at Forcados High School.

23. Mrs Tanimoro:
The guidance counsellor at Forcados High School.

24. A.H. Mohammed:
The author of the novel “The last Days at Forcados High School’’.

25. Joke:
A close friend of Efua Coker. She informed Efua of the gossip student made over her relationship with Miss. Novi. She also
helped Efua to pick her books when Caro bumped on her.


26. Caro:
The Queen –Bee and Jimi’s girlfriend .


27. Mr Vann:
He taught Physics at Forcados High School.


28. Mrs Obange:
The principal of St. Catherine’s.


29. Mr Salami:
The English Language teacher at Forcados High School.

30. Miss Agbenenovi:
The youth corper posted to Forcados High School. She filled in for Mt Salami.

31. Jide:
The smallest boy in the class. He danced with Efua during the Mid-term Dinner. St. Catherine’s: The School Efua Coker was expelled from. Oluronbi: The cultural dance drama held at Forcados High School. Mother’s Joy Nursery School: The school Nene Ekpo youngest brother attended.

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