Showing posts with label books. Show all posts
Showing posts with label books. Show all posts

Saturday, 24 March 2018

Analysis of Patience Swift's The Last Good Man


The Last Good Man by Patience Swift

Description

Sam is a loner, but he likes that. He enjoys his own company, and the company of nature. His life is shaken up when he finds a girl washed up on the beach. He takes her in and looks after her. Isobel is also alone, back in the village to deal with her mothers estate. She has been looking for love that she has read about, but without success. She crosses Sams path too, and things start to look up. Sam takes in the two ladies and his life changes for good.

This is a short book. It is descriptive and enjoyable. It is an easy read, with short, simple sentences. The book flowed and was a lovely read, even though it is a tragic read. It is beautiful read. Swift writes gorgeous characters, and wonderful scenery. Sam was sweet and caring. Isobel was vulnerable, with a troubled streak. The girl is silent, but was happy and a lovely read.

Analysis

THEMES OF THE BOOK
 DEATH: In the book The Last Good Man, the theme of death is one of the key prominent. The author Patient swift uses the theme of death to drive home her point and also to open another facet in her literary work. The book opens with the death of a man in the sea. Subsequently, the death of Isobels mother was mentioned and more so was the death of Isobels father that in turn reconnected us back to the Sams father that died in the sea and also his mother that eventually followed. The theme of death in the book was crowned at its tail end with the unfortunate death of Sam.

LONELINESS: The theme of loneliness finds its expression in each and every character featured in the book. Sams loneliness got to the top that he didnt have a choice that he started talking to the living furniture in the house. Sam was so lonely that when birds fly in is roof he finds himself communicating with them. Isobel was not left out as she lived an isolated live devoid of parental care, love and affection. These we clearly saw in the book when Isobel left her home in her teenage age. More so, it was recorded in the book that loneliness and the want for attention meticulously claimed the life of Isobels mother, Isobels father and Sams mother. The little girl was not spared from the state of loneliness as she got her own portion in the abandoned resources of loneliness this was seen in the book when the little girl was abandoned to die in the sea without anybody to talk, play with or befriend.

MAN AGAINST SOCIETY: The theme is basically outstanding in the book as we see individual (man) trying to fight against society norms and society in turns fight back. Isobel was treated with scorn because she dares to go against set standard in the society .this she did when she disobeyed her mother constituency by hanging out with friends in odd places and reading odd books. When fought back, Isobel had to leave the village in search of a common society that will accommodate her gestures. Sam on the other hand fought against the society and against the machinery of the state when the state fought back it led to Sams death.

Characters/ Characterization

Sam
Sam is very huge, He alone at the sea side. His life changes when Isobel and the silent girl came into his life. The book revolves around him, as he is a round character.
Isobel
Isobel, is a girl from a broken home that lacks marital bliss, open communication and companionship. A product of divorced couples, she embarks on a search for true love that she has so passionately read about from the bookshelf.
The lost Girl
 She is a nine-year old girl who is the unfathomable mysterious element in the novel. She was found by Sam on the beach, half dead. She is a silent intruder.
Marion
Marion is Isabel’s childhood friend who got married to a local fisherman. She is happily married with 3 Children.



SETTING: The setting of the book is basically traditional and remote in its analysis in other words the book uses the traditional literary setting in a spurious manner. The location of the book is founded on a village platform which is rural area.
 
POINT OF VIEW: The point of view used in the book is basically a third persons perspective/omnificent point of view this we clearly saw in the book as the author tried to distant her involvement in the characterisations by so doing the author made us to not only to see what she sees but also what she feels in cause of writing the book. Although at the ending, it tends to be a mixed up or a prose argon [point of view argon].  

SUSPENSE: This is a narrative technique that keeps a reader in a turbulence state or desirous state of wanting for more. This device was perfectly used by the author in other to drive home her point of keeping her readers on their toes for the love of the love of the book. Each character used in the book were placed in such a way that the readers squeak to know what will happen next to either character A OR B

Symbolism
The novel has a plethora of symbols that presents level of deeper understanding and interpretation of work by any critical analysis..They include
Death
The image of the sea and it's complete supremacy against the will of man.
True love is seen as unattainable ideal, no matter how we pust to shove and acquire it.
Nature is seen therapeutic remedy for troubled soul while the staggered life of disillusion and communality is seen as a draw back to the health and the soul. Sam was fine living by himself, for himself until he got involved with human society and civilization.

Language
The language is easy, vivid and strong narrative of presentations of events and picturesque of places like the side of the sea where Sam's home is situated.

Narrative Technique
The story is told in two narrative forms : third person narrative style and first person narrative techniques towards the end part of the .This is done for a more dramatic effect and attempt to create a distinctive style for the author.

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Wednesday, 28 February 2018

The School Boy by William Blake : Themes, Imagery And Symbolism


The School Boy by William Blake : Themes, Imagery And Symbolism

Themes.
The loss of Innocence.
Entrapment, Confinement.
Parental care and Authority.
The Stand point of Children.
Imagery and Symbolism.
Structure.
                                                     
         The School Boy by William Blake Themes, Imagery And Symbolism
                       
"The School Boy" is a 1789 poem by William Blake and published as a part of his poetry collection entitled "Songs of Innocence."
The poem is written in the pastoral tradition that focuses on the downsides of formal learning. It considers how going to school on a summer day "drives all joy away".The boy in this poem is more interested in escaping his classroom.

Themes

1. The Loss of innocence

Innocence is presented here as freedom from constraint and self-consciousness. The child starts out taking pleasure in an uninhibited life, full of trust in his world, both natural and human. The fragility of this state is clear from images like blossoms' and tender plants .. strip'd'. The child soon experiences the woe' in life and of learning the possibility of failure and betrayal.
The poem begins in Stanza I with the poet giving us a pastoral image of the innocence of nature reminiscent of that in The Introduction from Innocence, some critics have pointed out the similarity of The distant huntsman winds his horn in this poem with Piping down the valleys wild in The Introduction of Innocence. The poem gives us an image of rising with the company of many natural joys, not just the huntsman but birds sing on every tree and the sky-lark sings with me. It is in Stanza II that we see the oppression of the natural by authority typical of Experience and continued through the rest of the poem. This stanza compares the pastoral imagery of Stanza I with that of the cruel eye outworn, and the sighing and dismay of the children in the school room. The contrast is heightened by the similarity of the opening lines, both ending in a summer morn and the way this forces a similar rhyme across the two, and the similar metre and beginning of O! what sweet company. ending Stanza I and O! it drives all joy away; in the second line of Stanza II. The similarities enhance the differences in the two images and show childhood in the two states of pastoral innocence and the experience in restrictive school days leaving the reader with a feeling for the loss of youth.

2. Entrapment, Confinement

Images of confinement abound in the Songs. Blake the revolutionary opposed the coercive strictures of the Establishment' the state, organised religion etc. - which sought to quantify and rule all aspects of human behaviour. Here, education is formalised and restrictive, actually stunting the development of those it claimed to nurture. Prison imagery is seen in the cruel eye' of the overseer and the cage' of the bird.
Images of confinement is further, abound in the Songs. Blake the revolutionary opposed the coercive strictures of the Establishment' the state, organised religion etc. - which sought to quantify and rule all aspects of human behaviour. Here, education is formalised and restrictive, actually stunting the development of those it claimed to nurture. Prison imagery is seen in the cruel eye' of the overseer and the cage' of the bird.
Blake saw the natural child as an image of the creative imagination which is the human being's spiritual core. He was concerned about the way in which social institutions such as the school system and parental authority crushed the capacity for imaginative vision. The child's capacity for happiness and play are expressions of this imagination.

3. Parental care and authority

In Blake's work, parents are often perceived as inhibiting and repressing their children. Their own fears and shame are communicated to the next generation through the parental desire to protect' children from their desires. According to Blake, parents misuse care' to repress children, rather than setting the children free by rejoicing in, and safeguarding, their capacity for play and imagination. Here, parents are seen as colluding with a repressive system; it is as though they are entrapped by a way of seeing the world and transmit that entrapment to their offspring by perpetuating the system.
Stanzas V and VI are appeals to the alternate authority of the parents to realise the predicament of the child and the dangers in this suppression of natural learning. Stanza V gives us a strong image of nature destroyed with :-

if buds are nipd,
And blossoms blown away,
And if the tender plants are stripd

4. The Standpoint of children

Is the child born free and good, as Rousseau believed, or born sinful, as the Calvinist Christians believed?
Or is this opposition the result of fallen human beings' inability to recognise that the capacity for good and evil both belong to humanity?
Blake's idea that a young child can clearly see God echoes the Romantic sensibility articulated by Wordsworth, that children had an existence in heaven before the commencement of their earthly life. 

Imagery and symbolism

This poem depends upon three inter-related images, the schoolboy, the bird and the plant. All three are dependent upon, or vulnerable to, the way in which they are treated by human beings.

Schoolboy - The image of the child here focuses on his nature as free and unfettered. He is associated with the spring as a time for growth, freshness and playfulness. As such, the child represents the playful, free nature of the creative imagination. According to Blake, this was fettered by subjection to the demands of a system which denies the validity of imagination. In The School Boy, formal education involves subjection to a cruel' eye and cruelty in Blake is always linked with the denial of imaginative freedom and of the spiritual self.

Bird - The bird imagery allows for the comparison between the free child being imprisoned in school and the songbird being caged. The unity between bird and boy is emphasised in stanza one. The sky-lark sings with me'. This inverts our expectations. We tend to think of the sky-lark as the primary singer, with whom people might sing along. Here, however, it is the child who is the first singer. It is as natural to him as to the lark, as though he were another bird.

Birds are also images of freedom. Their capacity for flight and for song makes them appropriate images of creative imagination, since poets sing' and imagination is often linked with the notion of flight. The schoolboy in school and the bird in the cage are, therefore, seen as equivalents not only at the natural level, under physical subjection, but at the spiritual level, too. Both represent the caging and entrapping of imaginative vision.

Plant - The image of the plant applies to the school boy's present and future. The young plant, like the young child, is tender and vulnerable. The way it (and the child) is treated at this stage dictates its later capacity to bear fruit. Just as food gathered in autumn is necessary to ensure survival through the winter, so experiences of joy and the freedom of the imagination are necessary for a person's capacity to live well and survive the inevitable griefs' of life.

Structure

poem is a dramatic monologue, written in rhyme scheme (ababb).
It contains six stanzas of 30 lines. It examines the element of nature in proferring solution to learning and creative development.

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Thursday, 22 February 2018

Analysis of A Raising in the Sun by Lorraine Vivian Hansberry


A Raising in the Sun by Vivian Lorraine Hansberry

A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry is a play that displays housing discrimination in Chicago during the 1950s. Housing discrimination was partially an effect of the Great Migration. This was an event during the 1950s that resulted in about six million African Americans migrating from the south to the north, Midwest, and west regions of the United States. This caused the population of black people in major northern cities to increase rapidly. They are then only able to live in certain neighborhoods, which keeps their communities segregated.

Analysis

According to Lorraine Hansberrys stage directions at the beginning of the play, the action occurs sometime between the end of World War II and the 1950s. The play is set in an urban ghetto and deals with the problems encountered by a poor black family as it tries to cope with the realities of life on Chicagos South Side. It reveals the devastating effects of poverty and oppression on the African American family. Even before the play begins, Hansberrys stage directions, both in tone and substance, suggest the extent of that devastation. The furnishings in the Younger familys apartment, she says, are tired, and the once loved couch upholstery has to fight to show itself from under acres of dollies and couch covers. The very environment in which the Youngers live mirrors the struggle for survival that is waged daily in this household.

As the play progresses, the frustration born of this poverty and oppression mounts. The anger and hostility that it spawns begin to erode the foundations of the family structure. This erosion begins early in the play, exhibiting itself in the strained relations between Walter Lee and his wife Ruth as they argue over the disposition of money coming from insurance on Walters father. Walter Lee wants to use the money to purchase a liquor store. He is convinced that such a business venture will be his ticket out of the ghetto. His marriage threatens to collapse under the constant bickering. Ruth, having just discovered that she is pregnant, contemplates abortion to avoid bringing a new life into this hostile, poverty-ridden environment.

As the family anticipates the arrival of the insurance check, the tension grows and Walter becomes more agitated. He is resentful of his sister, whose medical-school expenses, he thinks, will consume money that he might otherwise use to finance his liquor store. When the check finally arrives and he finds that Mama Younger has used part of the money to make a down payment on a new house and plans to use the rest for Beneathas medical-school expenses, Walter explodes, spending his days driving around town and his nights brooding in the local bar.

When Mama begins to understand the depth of damage to Walter Lees feelings and manhood, she turns over the rest of the money to him to do with as he pleases. She makes one request, however: that he put aside the money for Beneathas education. Still pursuing his dream, however, Walter gives Willie, one of his friends, the money to purchase the liquor store for him. Willie absconds with the money, dashing Walter Lees hopes and dreams as well as those of the entire Younger family.

In an effort to recover his losses, Walter Lee decides to accept the money that has been offered earlier by their prospective white neighbors as a bribe to keep the Younger family out of an all-white neighborhood. In the last scene of the play, however, under the watchful eye of his son, Walter finds the courage to reject the offer. The family takes its leave of its ghetto apartment and heads for its new home and anticipated better life.

Form and Content

Written just as the Civil Rights movement began to get underway, this play (and the motion picture made from it in 1960) made an important statement regarding race relations. Lorraine Hansberry, coming as she did from an affluent African American family, had experienced discrimination in her own childhood when her father moved the family out of the Chicago ghetto to a home in Englewood, Illinois. She also had strong opinions about the position of black women in American society, who are represented to a great extent by the character of Beneatha in this play.

Additionally, Langston Hughess poem A Dream Deferred must be considered seminal in understanding the play. In it the poet asks, What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun?. . . or does it explode? and Hansberry has successfully dramatized various human reactions to such deferment. The time in the play spans only a few weeks, but the dreams held by each of the characters have roots that reach far back. As the play begins, Lena is expecting a check of $10,000 as beneficiary of her husbands life insurance, and each character sees that money as the key that will unlock the future.

Most volatile about getting control of the money is Walter Lee, who wants to invest (with two other men) in a liquor store and become an independent businessman. He represents the dream that is ready to explode. In the first scene, he makes his attitude very clear when he asks his wife Ruth to persuade his mother to give him the money, and he becomes very upset with her when she insists that it is Lenas money to do with as she likes.

Walter Lees frustration with his life causes him to project his predicament on his wife, as a representative of all black women. As he puts it, Man say I got to change my life. Im choking to death, baby! And his woman sayyour eggs is getting cold!

Lena Younger, knowing that she and her husband never realized their dreams, has accepted life as God has willed it. In the words of the poem, she has crusted and sugared overlike a syrupy sweet. Because of the insurance money, however, she believes that she has been given a second chance at her dream of improving the lives of everyone in her family by moving out of the ghetto. Furthermore, because she is very religious, she disapproves of the idea of a liquor store for her son. Representing the older black woman who heads the family, Lena is a loving but quietly controlling matriarch.

The early-morning scene that opens the play illustrates clearly the physical conditions in which the Youngers live. The apartment is clean but very crowded; Travis sleeps on a couch in the living room, and the family shares a bathroom with other tenants in the building. Quite soon, Ruth reveals that she is pregnant, and her con-sideration of an abortion strengthens Lenas resolve regarding the use of the money.

Beneathas dream of becoming a doctor is quite concrete; she has had it since adolescence. Unlike her brother, she does not solicit her mothers financial assistance. Representing the newly emancipated black woman (in the image of the playwright), Beneatha gives the impression that she will not marry for security or surrender her free-thinking ideas. At one point, Lena actually slaps Beneatha and insists that she affirm her belief in God, but it is clear that the young woman acquiesces only out of respect for her mother. She will march to the beat of her own drummer.

Symbolism, Imagery, Allegory

Plant
The plant that Mama keeps near the apartments sole window is barely surviving because it lacks adequate nourishment. Sound like anyone else we know? Yet she is completely dedicated to the plant and lovingly tends it every single day in the hopes that it will one day be able to flourish. Gosh. Sound like her behavior towards anyone else? This is by far the plays most overt symbol; the plant acts as a metaphor for the family.

Sunlight
Hansberry writes about sunlight and how the old apartment has so little of it. The first thing Ruth asks about in Act Two, Scene One is whether or not the new house will have a lot of sunlight. Sunlight is a familiar symbol for hope and life, since all human life depends on warmth and energy from the sun.

Cockroaches, rats and other lovely creatures.

These creatures heavily reinforce the Younger familys undesirable living situation.

 SETTING

Where It All Goes Down
The Youngers' apartment in the slums of Chicago's Southside, 1950s
The Apartment

Hansberry welcomes us into the tiny apartment of the Younger family. This place is really cramped, especially with five people living in it. On stage we see the kitchen, which is so small that it's more like a closet. Most of the play's action goes down in the living room, which also serves as the dining room and Travis's makeshift bedroom.

There's access to two bedrooms on opposite sides of the apartment (one room shared by Mama and Beneatha, the other by Walter and Ruth). The bathroom is out in the hall; the Youngers are forced to share it with their neighbors, the Johnsons. So, yeah, you get the point this place is small!

The incredibly close quarters of the Youngers' apartment definitely adds to the high tensions that run throughout the play. It's a wonder the family doesn't fight more than they already do, considering how on top of each other they're forced to live.

The tininess of the apartment definitely has a major effect on the action of the play early on. When Ruth finds out she's pregnant, she seriously considers having an abortion. If the baby is born, there just won't be anywhere for it to sleep. This thought is just too much for Mama, however. When she realizes what her daughter-in-law is considering, she marches straight out and purchases a new setting for her family to live in the house in Clybourne Park.

Be sure to look at set design pictures in order to better visualize the space. To see how professional Scene Designers have brought the Younger apartment to life onstage, look online. (Or better yet, attend a theatre production.) Here's an example.

Southside Chicago

The neighborhood which the Youngers live in is particularly significant because, during the 1950s, it was primarily a poor neighborhood inhabited mainly by African Americans. Many blacks ended up in Chicago's Southside after migrating from the South, looking for work and seeking to escape racial discrimination.

Things were definitely better in the North on a lot of levels, but blacks still faced many challenges because of their race. As A Raisin in the Sun shows, white society made it very hard for African Americans to escape the cramped, vermin-infested apartment buildings of Chicago's Southside. There may not have been any law officially segregating the city, but unofficial segregation was still going on.

The 1950s

The exact year is never specified, but the play takes place in the 1950s. Probably, the most significant thing to think about as far as the time period goes is the status of race issues. A lot of progress had been made by this point in American history, but as A Raisin in the Sun  shows, there was still a long, long way to go.

The 1950s was a sort of turning point in America, the decade that brought the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement. During much of the 1950s, the South was segregated by racist Jim Crow laws. And, as we point out in our entry on the Southside, many African Americans faced unofficial racial barriers in the North. The racial tensions of the time period definitely fuel the conflicts of the play.

Beneatha's character, in particular, is grounded in the time period, as she deals with very timely socio-political issues. In a way, though, she is totally ahead of her time. We have no doubt that if Beneatha was still in the US around in the 1960s she would definitely be marching with Dr. King. Beneatha is also head of her time with the idea that African Americans should be more in touch their African roots. This became a major movement among black Americans later on in the '60s. With the character of Beneatha, Hansberry predicted (and possibly helped to spark) some major movements in American history.

 GENRE

Family Drama, Realism, African-American Literature
A Raisin in the Sun was part of a broader movement to portray the lives of ordinary, working-class African-Americans. The genre of Realism captures ordinary life, and A Raisin in the Sun definitely fits this description. Dreams of buying a house, making some money in business, and going to medical school are dreams shared by millions of working-class Americans. And if you cant figure out why this play is a Family Drama, then we seriously screwed up our job.

TONE

Take a story's temperature by studying its tone. Is it hopeful? Cynical? Snarky? Playful?
Alternates between Ironic and Somber
Life is rough for the Younger family, and Hansberry's use of somber tone is appropriate to that. At the same time, however, she injects a heavy dose of irony and sarcasm. Did you notice how Hansberry writes "Drily" in a lot of the line directions? (Wait, is that just "dryly" spelled a different way? Yes, it is.) The Youngers have a bite in how they talk; there's a fun tongue-in-cheek kind of feel, especially in Walter and Beneatha's sibling chats.

One of the single most ironic moments in the play, however, might be when Mr. Lindner explains that the people he represents have worked hard to achieve their dreams. In that single scene, the characters don't notice the irony so much as the audience does. It's Hansberry at her finest exposing how the American Dream can ring hollow for black Americans.

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Sunday, 28 January 2018

The Proud King by William Morris: Themes, Language, Setting, Structure and Poetic device.

The Proud King by William Morris: Themes, Language, Setting, Structure and Poetic device.

This long narrative poem captures the downfall of a powerful king from riches to rags due to his hubris. His personality flaw lies in pride. Due to the enormous wealth and authority he exerts, King Jovinian exhibits royal arrogance. He feels that he is more than a man and places himself on equal status with God. To him, he cannot die. He has assumed immortality. Because of this, God decides to humble King Jovinian.

THEMES IN WILLIAM MORRIS' "THE PROUD KING"

William Morris' "The Proud King" is one that has so many themes embedded in it. Some of these numerous themes are:

1. Pride goes before a fall

The poem insinuate to the biblical teaching of pride and its repercussions, which is projected through the actions of the epic hero, King Jovinian. The key ideology of the poem validates the authenticity of the popular biblical proposition, "God opposes the proud and gives grace to the humble".

 2. The supremacy of God

God is a Supreme Being and will never hesitate to prove his supremacy when the need be. When King Jovinian assumes the position of a god due to his influence and affluence, God reduced him to a common madman until he admits that God gave him all that he has. The theme of Supremacy: The poet proves that the supremacy of God is far better than that of the King Jovinian. Jovinian's supremacy
makes him maintain fear and respect for his positions and possessions
but the supremacy of God ripped him off his power and possesions, shamed him and reduced him to nothing in the eyes of everyone; "The hot sun sorely
burned his naked skin" (in line 100). The angel finally revealed
himself to King Jovinian from line 719-728:

3. The theme of Arrogance: King Jovinian's arrogance went far even in

his situation of wretchedness, he was arrogantly approaching the nobles; he
was banging the palace gate with a very heavy stone in line 143-144
"He hurdled himself against the mighty gate/ And beat upon it madly
with a stone" and in line 215-217, he was shouting at the ranger;
"Armies will rise up when I nod my head/ Slay me! _or cast thy
treachery away/ And have anew my favour from this day."

4. The theme of Repentance: Without repentance, the proud king

wouldn't have regain his power, possessions and wealth. King Jovinian was
potrayed in the poem in different forms. He began to wear heart of
regret; "Muttered, I wish the day would ne'er come back/ If all that
once I had I now must lack" (line 333-334) in his regrets, he still
has hope for "the fresh morning air/ The rising sun, and all things
fresh and fair/ Yet caused some little hope in him to rise" (in lines
347-349) and at a certain point he narrated his plight to Christopher
a-Green from line 365-370:
"And asked him of his name and misery;
Then in his throat a swelling passion rose,
Which yet he swallowed down, and, "Friend," said he,
"Last night I had the hap to meet the foes
Of God and man, who robbed me, and with blows
Stripped off my weed and left me on the way:"

When King Jovinian became so confused in his state of nothingness, he
called on God in line 435-436; "Ah, God!" said he, "is this another
earth/ From that whereon I stood two days ago?" he further begged God
from line 605-609 "Saying, "Lord God, what bitter things are these?
What hast thou done, that every man that sees/ This wretched body, of
my death is fain?/ O Lord God, give me back myself again!".

5. Death is inevitable

As they say " All things must come to an end". No who you are or the position you hold in the society, you will surely sleep in the cold hands of death when the time is due. King Jovinian thinks his affluence, titles, influence and other worldly fortunes can immortalise him or save him from dying like his predecessors. Thus,this is an utopian thought coming from an conceited king. At the latter part of the poem, it is revealed that he eventually King Jovinian dies and another king reigns afterwards.

6. Ultimate power corrupts ultimately.

In this poem, William Morris reveals how power corrupts mortal men. King Jovinian is intoxicated by power. His disdainful and vain acts are products of his affluence and influence, which he gained through power. The Ranger is not left out here. In stanza 36, we are meant to understand that he is enthusiastic with his earthly gains and position that after King Jovinian leaves his presence, he orders his servants to bring in a musician to play in sweet melodies. He is delighted with his achievements and grateful to the king (instead of God) for the grace that he has enjoyed. This also shows that the Ranger is happy for King Jovinian's misfortune hence his sarcastic gratitude to him (Jovinian).


SETTING
"The Proud King" is set in the medieval period, a period when kings in Europe ruled as absolute sovereigns of their lands.



LANGUAGE
The language of William Morris' "The Proud King" is simple (that is, easily comprehensible) and conversational; and as an epic poem, it is narrative in nature. The poem is also spiced with Elizabethan lexicons such as "thou" (L. 269), "thy" (L. 187), which are present in the religious register of the medieval period within which this poem is set. The presence of such lexicons does not only project the setting of the poem, but also portrays it as a religious poem, aimed at revealing the evil consequences of pride.

STRUCTURE
The poem is made up of 119 stanzas of 849 lines. 117 out of 119 stanzas comprise seven lines each, with a consistent rhyme scheme (ababbcc) while the last 2 stanzas have nineteen and eleven lines, with the rhyme scheme, "aabbccddeeffgghhiij" and "abbccddeeff" respectively

POETIC DEVICES/FIGURES OF SPEECH IN "THE PROUD KING"
Some of the poetic devices or figures of speech in this poem are:

1. Alliteration
"May morning" (L. 15).
"step... step" (L. 30).
"his horse" (L. 64).
"visage vanished" (L. 141).
"Worse who was of little worth" (L. 613) etc.

2. Hyperbole
Some expressions are exaggerated in the poem.
Examples:
"mighty gate" (L. 117).
"a mighty hart and swift" (L. 45).
"And since his horse was worth a Kingdom's gift" (L. 47).

3. Antithesis
The poet uses two opposite expressions to pass across a vital message.
Examples:
"And is a mighty lord to slay and save" (L. 648).
"New things becoming old, and old things new" (L. 784).

4. Oxymoron
The placing together of two contradictory words to express an idea.
Example:
"Thou bitter-sweet thou knowest well this is" (L. 747).


5. Personification
"angry eye" (L. 708).

6. Biblical allusion
There are some biblical allusion in the poem.
Examples:
"As Adam's, ere he took the devil's hire" (L.186).
"Since Noah's flood has altered all the air" (L. 203).

7. Euphemism
"That it may lie when I am gone away".

8. Inversion
This literary device occurs when a normal sentence order is reversed.
Example:
"King was I yesterday, and long before" (L. 485).

Normally, this would have been "I was a King yesterday, and long before".

9. Repetition
"Morning" (Lines 15, 46, 213).
"God" (Lines 104, 187, 194, 196).
"May morning" (Lines 15 and 213).

10. Synecdoche
"God and the world against one lonely head" (L. 560). The word 'head' represents  King Jovinian.

11. Rhetorical question
"Is this a dream that my wearied eyes behold?" (L. 634).
"What doleful wonder now shall I be told/Of that I'll world that I so long have left?" (Lines 635 and 636).
"What thing thy glory from thee has bereft" (L. 637) etc.

12. Irony
Precisely the use of dramatic irony in the poem. The concept of the king's identity seems ironic in the sense that only the king and the readers of the poem understood the king's predicament; no one else.

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Friday, 29 December 2017

Role of Characters in She Stoops to Conquer

Role and Character Analysis of all Character in She Stoops to Conquer




Role and Character Analysis of Sir Charles Marlow In She Stoops to Conquer


Sir Charles Marlow
A minor character and the father of Young Marlow; also a friend of Mr Hardcastle. Arespectable and aristocratic fellow from the town who believes his son is of very modest character. He follows his son, a few hours behind. Unlike his son, he does not meet Tony Lumpkin in the Three Pigeons, and thus is not confused. He is an old friend of Mr Hardcastle, both of them once having been in the British military.. Sir Marlow enjoys the follies of his son, but does not understand these initially. However, he is quite upset when his son treats Kate as a maid.
Every father is always proud of a son with good qualities. His coming to Mr Hardcastle's home after his son is to ensure nothing goes wrong with the marriage proposal.
He is quite pleased with the union of his son and his friend's daughter. Demonstrates 18th century practice of
parents' involvement in the choice of marital partners



Role and Character Analysis of Young Charles Marlow In She Stoops to Conquer


Young Charles Marlow
Marlow is a scholar with many good qualities who "is designed for employment in the service Every father is always proud of a son with good qualities.
Promising young man who comes to the country to woo the Hardcastles' pretty daughter, Kate. His coming to Mr Hardcastle's home after his son is to ensure nothing goes wrong with the marriage proposal. He is quite pleased with the union of his son and his friend's daughter. Demonstrates 18th century practice of parents' involvement in the choice of marital part need.
His only drawback is that he is extremely shy around refined young ladies, although he is completely at ease and even forward with women of humble birth and working-class status. The central and pivotal male character in the play, used by playwright Goldsmith to satirize England's preoccupation with, and overemphasis on, class distinctions. Marlow is sophisticated and has travelled round the world Around lower-class women Marlow is a lecherous rogue, but around those of an upper-class card he is a nervous, bumbling fool. Marlow is brash and rude to Mr castle, owner of "Liberty Hall" (a reference to another site in London), whom Marlow believes to be an innkeeper. Possessed of a strange contradictory character, wherein he is mortified to speak to any "modest" woman, but is lively and excitable in conversation with barmaids or other low-class women. However, Marlow's redeeming qualities make him a likeable character, and the audience tends to root for him when he becomes the victim of a practical joke resulting in mix-ups and mistaken identities
Because Marlows rudeness is comic, the audience is likely not to dislike Thus, interview with Kate exploits the man's fears, and convinces Miss she will have to alter her persona drastically to make a relationship with the man possible. The character of Charles Marlow is very similar to the description of Goldsmith himself as he too acted "sheepishly" around women of a higher class
than himself, and amongst "creatures of another stamp" acted with the most confidence.


Role and Character Analysis of Mr Hardcastle In She Stoops to Conquer


Mr Hardcastle
The patriarch of the Hardcastle family, and owner of the estate where the play is set. He is a middle-aged gentleman who lives in an old mansion in the countryside about sixty miles from London.
He despises the ways of the town, and is dedicated to the simplicity of country life and old fashioned traditions.
The father of Kate Hardcastle, who is mistaken by Marlow and Hastings as an innkeeper Hardcastle is a realist and a level-headed countryman who loves old" and hates the town and the "follies" that come with it. He is very much occupied with.the old times' and likes nothing better than to tell his war stories and to drop names, such as the Duke of Marlborough. into conversations, Hardcastle cares for his daughter Kate, but insists that she dresses plainly in his presence. It is he who arranges for Marlow to come to the country to marry his daughter.

Mr Hardcastle's love for the rustic life away from fashionable London, which he believes breeds "vanity and affectation" is portrayed. He may be stuffy, long
ded, and old-fashioned, but he affectionately humours his wifo, and oves his daughter, Kate. He wants the best for her, and in selecting a good husband for ber, his objective is not money or status, but her bappiness.
Hardcastle is a man of manners and, despite being highly insulted by Marlow s treatment ofhim. manages to keep his temper with his guest until near the end of the play,
To demonstrate Hardcastle's wealth of forgiveness as he not only forgives Marlow once be his realized Mariow's mistake, but also gives him consent to marry his daughter Portrays the 18th century marital practice. During this period, entirely arranged marriages were rare, but a young woman rarely had the right to select a husband entirely on her own. More customary was for the father to select the prospective husband, while the daughter had the right to accept or refuse him, In She Stoops to Conquer, Mr Hardcastle has selected Marlow, the son of an old friend, but he assures Kate he would never control her choice.



Role and Character Analysis of George Hasting In She Stoops to Conquer


George Hasting
A close friend of Charles Marlow and an admirer of Miss Constance Neville. while Marlow is busy with Kate, Hastings is busy with constance. A decent fellow who is willing to marry Constance even without her money. Hastings is also an educated man who cares deeply about Constance, with the intention of fleeing to France with her. However, the young woman makes it clear that she cannot leave without her jewels, which are guarded by Mrs Hardcastle, thus the pair and Tony collaborate to get hold ofthe jewels. When Hastings realizes the Hardcastle house is not an inn, he decides not to tell Marlow who would thus leave the premises immediately. True love does not thrive on material heritage. His companionship to Charles Marlow boosts Marlow's confidence in dealing with
Kate Tony accepts to help Hastings elope with Constance to erase Constance from his life and his mother's constant efforts to match him with Constance.



Role and Character Analysis of Tony Lumpkin In She Stoops to Conquer


Tony Lumpkin
son of Mrs Hardcastle by her first husband (Mr Lumpkin) and stepson to Mr Hardcastle. He is a mischievous, uneducated playboy and a very consumptive figure; a fat, ale-drinking young man who has little ambition except to play practical jokes and to visit the local tavern whenever be has a mind; frightens the maids and worries the kittens. Proves to be good-natured and kind despite his superficial disdain for everyone. do Mrs Hardcastle has no authority over Tony, and their relationship contrasts with that between Hardcastle and Kate.
Tony takes an interest in horses, "Bet Bouncer and especially the alehouse, where he joyfully sings with members of the lower-classes. When Tony comes of age, he will receive 1,500 pounds a year. His mother hopes to marry him to her niece, constance Neville, who is in line to inherit a casket of jewels from her uncle. Tony and Miss Neville despise each other It is Tony's initial ception of Marlow, for a joke, which sets up the plot Tony goes to great effort to help Neville and Hastings in their plans to leave the country because he despises her.
Tony's free-wheeling ways ofdrinking and tomfoolery is probably because of the huge inheritance that awaits him when he comes of age.



Role and Character Analysis of Mrs Dorothy Hardcastle
In She Stoops to Conquer


Mrs Dorothy Hardcastle
The matriarch of the Hardcastle family; wife to Mr Hardcastle and mother to Tony from an earlier marriage.
She coddles her son Tony, overprotects and loves him, but fails to tell him he is of age so that he is eligible to receive £1,500 a year, Unlike her husband, she yearns to sample life in high society. She also values material possessions and hopes to match her son (by her first husband) with her niece, Constance Neville, in order to keep her niece's inheritance in the family Mrs Hardcastle is a corrupt and eccentric character Her behaviour is.either over-the-top or far fetched, providing some of the play's comedy She is also partly selfish, wanting Neville to marry her son to keep the and that Constance is in Mobildespise each other, fact planning to flee to France with Hastings The vanity of Mrs Hardcastle is pronounced. Mrs Hardcastle is a contrast to her husband, which provides the bumourin the play's opening, loves the town, and is the only character that is not happy at the end of the play, Desperate material quest is likely to end up disastrously.



Role and Character Analysis of Miss Kate Hardcastle In She Stoops to Conquer


Miss Kate Hardcastle
Pretty daughter of the Hardcastles who is wooed by young Chates Marlow, she is called Miss Hardcastle" in the play. Kate respects her father, dressing plainly in his presence to please him Kale seeks in marriage a compatible and companionable husband, not money or status. in an effort to ascertain Marlow's true feelings, she pretends to be a barmaid to get him to announce that he loves her despite her low social position. intelligence and versatility she resembles such Shakespearean heroines as Viola in Twelfth Night and Roselaid in as you like it, Kate enjoys "French frippery" and the attributes ofthe town, much as her mother does.
When Charles Marlow mistakes woman her for the woman of the lowest class she allow him to continue to discover what he really thinks to mistake her identity, thus freeing his captive tongue so she discover what she really feels about her. She is Calculating and scheming, posing as a maid and deceiving Marlow, causing him to love with up her, Even though her father recommended Marlow to her, she investigates him herself to make mind and not because of the attractive wealthy background of Marlow. She is able to balance the "refined simplicity" of country life with the love of life associated with the town. The formal and respectful relationship that she shares with her father, contrasts with that between Tony and Mrs Hardcastle. Her conduct projects her as the quer heroine of the play.
In truth, Kate stands as the exemplary illustration of moderation, which the play seems to preach, Her foremost virtue in the world is liveliness, She wants to live and enjoy her life, a desire strict formality seems to exclude and so seeks to find in She worries that custom will force her into a and loveless marriage, this overly respectable gentleman, a man she might enjoy.



Role and Character Analysis of Miss Constance Neville In She Stoops to Conquer


Miss Constance Neville
Constance Neville, an orphan, is the niece and ward of Mrs Hardcastle (who holds Miss Neville's inheritance of jewels in her possession until she becomes
legally qualified to take possession of it)
and the cousin of Kate. Comely young lady who loves Hastings but is bedevilled by Mrs Hardcastle's schemes to match her with Tony. Her aunt, Mrs Hardcastle, wishes her to marry Tony Lumpkin, but Constance wants to marry Hastings.
Neville schemes with Hastings and Tony to get the jewels so she can then flee to France with her admirer, Miss Neville is projected as a focused and determined lady; she follows her heart and also insists on her legal inheritance without bowing to her aunt's wish to marry her cousin, Tony. Through Miss Neville, we are taught the value of liberty and compromises. Sometimes we may mean well for our wards in our intentions, when they come in conflict with their own desire we must not insist. Material greed in Mrs Hardcastle is signposted for scheming to match-make Tony and Neville because she is heir to a large fortune of jewels.



Role and Character Analysis of Diggory In She Stoops to Conquer


Diggory
Hardcastle's head servant. Atalkative, likeable servant with poor table manners and a broad sense of humour. Mr Hardcastle attempts to teach Diggory and other field servants to serve at a formal table, with.comic results. Diggory also delivers the letter which tells Tony that Hastings needs fresh horses in order to el with Constance. Diggory serves as a useful ingredient in the comic menu Goldsmith presents in She stoops to conquer. The letter he delivers brings complications to the plot of the play. Constance must read the letter aloud in front of her aunt. Realizing its contents, Constance pretends to read, instead fabricating a story about gambling Tony's interest in gaming causes him to hand the letter to his mother, which spoils the secret elopement. The letter he delivers brings complications to the plot of the play. must read the aloud in front of her aunt. Realizing its contents, Constance pretends to read, instead fabricating a story about gambling. Tony's interest in gaming causes him to hand the letter to his mother, which ils the secret elopement.




Role and Character Analysis of Maid
In She Stoops to Conquer


Maid: Kate's servant. The woman who tells her that Marlow believed Kate to be a barmaid, which leads Kate towards her plan to stoop and conquer.


Role and Character Analysis of Landlord In She Stoops to Conquer


Landlord of the Three Pigeons Alehouse who welcomes Marlow and Hastings, and helps Tony to play his trick on them.


Role and Character Analysis of sir
In She Stoops to Conquer


Jeremy: Marlow's drunken servant. His drunken impertinence offends Hardcastle, which leads Hardcastle to order Marlow to leave.

Servants in the Hardcastle Household

Maid in the Hardcastle Household

First Fellow, Second Fellow, Third Fellow, Fourth Fellow: Drinking companions of Tony Lumpkin
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Background of She stoops to Conquer by oliver Goldsmith

Background of She stoops to Conquer by oliver Goldsmith



She stoops to Conquer is a late 18th century play written by an Irish author oliver Goldsmith It is a play of mistaken identities, practical jokes and plots-within-plots. It was fint performed in Londo the Covent Garden Theatre on 15 March 1773 and was a huge success. It attracted an applause that was first of its kind in the London theatre, and almost immediately entered the repertory of respectable theatre companies. Within a decade, the play travelled both throughout the European continent and to the United States. She Stoops to Conquer can be described as a comedy of manners in which high-bom characters make fools of themselves trying to preserve their dignity, when in actuality they behav ways more fitting of the lower classes. Perhaps the play retells Goldsmith's own experiences abroad basking across Europe after barely obtaining a college degree, as can be deduced from the following memorable lines:

Let school-masters puzzle their brain, With grammar and nonsense, and learning Good liquor l stoutly maintain. Gives genius a better discerning. (p 6)

At the time of She Stoops to Conquer, popular theatre comedy was separated into what was commonly termed "sentimental comedy" and "laughing comedy." The former was concerned with
bourgeois (middle-class) morality and praising virtue. The latter, which dated back to the Greeks and Romans and through Shakespeare, was more willing to engage in Tow" humour the vice. In the prologue to the play, for instance, Woodward suggests that a certain class of actor (and by extension, then, audience and writer) were dying out as sentimental comedy became more popular,
play has an extra purpose: it must rejuvenate the joy taken in "laughing which could be willing to be more stupid, to dramatize base characters and characteristics, and to mock even the characters who profess to be moral
of refined Written essentially to entertain, but Goldsmith also satirizes the "vanity and affectation" 18th a society preoccupied with an idealized view of mankind, attempting to create this
century themes are to this, to ideas of real rough appearance and "fine manners. The play themes are link to this idea of what is real and what is false or As the elegant of Marlow says, owe too much to the the world, too much to the authority father ..."(p. 43).
By the time Goldsmith's play debuted in the late-18th century, England had undergone great political, economic, and social transformations. This period marked a period of great transition for England between 1640 and 1688, the nation fought a civil war, executed its king, and restored its monarchy it then established a government which balanced power between monarch and parliament. England had also fought a series of wars with the United Dutch Provinces and France, setting the stage for the dominance as a colonial power. The American Revolution loomed on the horizon, but historians agree that the loss of the colonies had limited political or economic impact. England became
increasingly prosperous nation occupying a central position on the world stage. These changes created what came to be known as the "marriage market," which provides the backdrop for She Stoops

Oliver Goldsmith's She ops to Conquer provokes laughter often at situations that are quite serious. Parent/child relationships and marriage stand at the centre of Goldsmith's play, as the character attempt to strike some balance between authority and freedom, obedience and independence. While Goldsmith treats these themes light-heartedly, the play's humour conceals a sombre undercurrent Simply put, the comedy asks how, at a time when many people married for money rather than love, can marriage join people who are both economically and emotionally compatible?
Initially titled the Mistakes of a Night, and indeed, the events within the play take place in one lo night, but perhaps due to evoking too strongly Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, Goldsmith re-titled the play She Stoops to Conquer. The title refers to Kate's nuse of pretending to be a barmaid to reach her goal. It originates in the poetry of Dryden, which Goldsmith may have seen misquoted Lord Chesterfield. In Chesterfield's version, the lines in question read: "The prostrate lover, when he lowest lies, But stoops to conquer, and but kneels to rise. For those who believe the play's plot seems too far-fetched, Oscar James Campbell noted i introduction to Chief Plays of Goldsmith and Sheridan: The School for Scandal. She Stoops Conquer The Rivals that the "central idea of She Stoops to Conquer was suggested to Goldsmith by an incident of his boyhood. He had been told that the house of Mr Featherstone a was an inn and directed there for entertainment, Goldsmith, always easily deceived by a practical joke, had gone to the squire's house and him as a host. Out of this situation grew his characters and their games of cross-purpose autobiographical elements in the play include resemblances between the young, vagabond Goldsmith who spent two years on a walking tour of Europe and the irresponsible, irrepressible Tony Lumpkin. Finally, Goldsmith, like his character Marlow, was at ease with serving women, but stiffin the company of proper ladies, in part because of insecurities about his physical appearance one of the few from the 18th century to have an enduring appeal, and is still regularly performed today. It has been adapted into a film several times, including in 1914 and 1923. Perhaps one
of the most famous incarnations of "She Stoops to Conquer" was Peter version, staged in 1993 and starring Miriam Margolyes as Mrs Hardcastle. The most famous production is the 1971 version featuring Ralph Richardson, Tom Courtenay, Juliet Mills and Brian Cox
with Trevor Peacock as Tony Lumpkin. It was shot on location near Ross on Wye, Herefordshire and is part of the BBC archive
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Themes of She Stoops to Conquer


Themes of She Stoops to Conquer


Analysis of the Theme of Class and class bias In She Stoops to Conquer



Class and class bias
She Stoops to Conquer is not explicitly a study on class but the theme is central to it. The decisions the characters make and their perspectives on one another, are all largely based on what class they are a part Where Tony openly loves low-class people like the drunks in the Three Pigeons, Marlow must hide his love of low-class women from his father and "society." His dynamic relationship with Kate (and the way he treats her) is defined by who he thinks she is at the time from high-class Kate to a poor barmaid to a woman from a good family but with no fortune. Hastings' and Marlow's reaction to Hardcastle is also a great example of the importance of class they find him impudent and absurd, because they believe him to be of low class, but his behaviour would be perfectly reasonable and expected from member of the upper class, as he truly is. Class bias manifests in the way some of the characters respond to one another and situations. For instance, until Kate
teaches him a lesson, Marlow responds to women solely on the basis of their status in society. He looks down on women of the lower class but is wholly at ease around them: he esteems women of the upper class but shy around them. Like the London society in which he was brought up, he assumes that all women of a certain class think and act according to artificial and arbitrary standards expected of that class. As for Mrs Hardcastle, she appea to assess a person by the value of his or her possessions.



Analysis of the Theme of Class, power and social status In She Stoops to Conquer


Class, power and social status
Class, power and social status can be examined by comparatively looking at men vs. women; parents vs. children; rich vs. poor; young vs. old. Whilst our sex is decided at birth, our gender is much more about society's views of masculinity and femininity. In the play, Goldsmith makes us laugh at the way men and women, as fathers, mothers, lovers, young and old, rich and poor behave but in doing so he also raises important questions about society. Consider the presentation of the differing relationships between Kate and her father and Tony and his mother; consider the powerlessness of women and their consequent need for men with money; and just why does Mrs Hardcastle feel the need to keep hold of the jewels? In Act II, Mrs Hardcastle fakes sophistication with Hastings but, through Goldsmith's use of dramatic irony, we recognize her falseness.


Analysis of the Theme of Love has no regard for social In She Stoops to Conquer


Love has no regard for social boundaries Although prevailing attitudes among England's elite classes frown on romance between one of their own and a person of humble origin, Marlow cannot help falling in love with acommon binmair (who is, of course, Kate in disguise).


Analysis of the Theme of Hope for flawed humanity In She Stoops to Conquer


Hope for flawed humanity
Although Marlow makes a fool of himself as a result of his upper class bias Kate has enough common sense to see through London arrogance encasing him and and to appreciate him for his genuinely good qualities which are considerable once He allow them to surface. Mrs Hardcastle, in spite of her misguided values, also enjoys the love if her practical, down to earth husband. He too, is willing to look beyond her foibles in favour of her good points.


Analysis of the Theme of Trickery and mockery In She Stoops to Conquer


Trickery and mockery
laugh Marlow being duped yet it is through this mocking that Goldsmith more easily drives home criticisms of society and its views on, for example, fathers and mothers, femininity, d marriage. In Act IV, Hastings' letter to Tony acts as a metaphor for the play's theme of deception and disguise; with the refined handwriting perhaps making it indecipherable, much as the surface
refinements of "genteel life" hide the "true" person underneath.



Analysis of the Theme of Deceit/Trickery In She Stoops to Conquer


Deceit/Trickery
Much of this play's comedy comes from the trickery played by various characters. The inost important deceits come from Tony, including his lie about Hardcastle's home and his scheme of driving his mother and Constance around in circles. However, deceit also reaches to the centre of the play's more major themes. In a sense, the only reason anyone learns anything about their deep assumptions about class and behaviour is because they are duped into seeing characters in different ways, This truth is most clear with Marlow and his shifting perspective on Kate, but it is also true for the Hardcastles Charles, who are able to see the in others because of what trickery Apparently, appearance vs. reality: openness and truth vs deception: fine speech actions, become the tools for navigating this theme.


Analysis of the Theme of Appearance Vs. Reality In She Stoops to Conquer


Appearance Vs. Reality
much of the comedy and reality
play depends on between appearance and reality. After all Marlow's misperception of Mr Hardcastle's house as an inn drives the narrative action in the first place. Ironically, Goldsmith's comedy allows appearance to lead to the discovery of Kate's deception leads her to discover Marlow's true nature. Falling in love when he thinks barmaid, he declares his decision to defy society and marry her her a class. Her falsehood in spite of the differences in their social allows him to relax with her and reveal his true self.


Analysis of the Theme of Behaviour/Appearance In She Stoops to Conquer


Behaviour/Appearance
One of the elements Goldsmith most criticizes' in his play's satirical moments is the aristocratic emphasis on behaviour as a gauge of character. Even though we today believe that one's behaviour in terms of "low" versus "high" class behaviour does not necessarily indicate who someone is. many characters in the play a often blinded to a character's behaviour because of an assumption
For instance, Marlow and Hastings treat Hardcastle cruelly because they think him the landlord of and are confused by his behaviour, which seems 'brazen'. The same behaviour would have seemed appropriately high-class if they had not been fooled by Tony. Throughout the play, characters (especially Marlow) assume they understand someone's behaviour when what truly guides them is their
assumption of the other character's class.



Analysis of the Theme of The love of appearance over substance In She Stoops to Conquer


The love of appearance over substance
This is very much 'noticeable' as a theme in this play. It is manifest in many small symbols, like the way Marlow and Hastings decide how to dress in order to best present themselves, or the way
Hardcastle seeks comfort over age, hoping it will not make her unfashionable. Yet the truth is that the "high" appearance of things is not the truth, but merely a guise behind which lies the baser
nature of humans. Much of this thematic content is apparent in the act's signature scene, the meeting of Kate and Marlow. Many things are happening here. Firstly, it is a wonderful parody of sentimental dialogue. One would expect the two lovers in a sentimental comedy (a think of today's romantic comedies) to express acceptable philosophies about life to one another, but here, Marlow is shy unable to say anything, and it is the woman who has to put those words in his mouth. It is as though that is leading him into the sentimental conversation expected of them, while all the while she enjoys of situation. However, the substance ofthe conversation does touch on the play's theme: the importance of living, rather than observing life. Ironically, Marlow believes he has only engaged in the latter, because he lacks adeptness at speaking with modest women. Kate, on the other hand, believes that Marlow's lively nature (which she has not seen yet) is the way to actually experience life. He has been blinded by aristocratic expectation to look down on his own pursuits, while right in front of his face is an aristocratic woman who would value such in him if he had the courage to reveal it.


Analysis of the Theme of Truth and falsehood In She Stoops to Conquer


Truth and falsehood
Thematically related to the theme of appearance and reality, Goldsmith uses falsehood to reveal the truth. Most obviously Tony's lie about Mr Hardcastle's mansion being an inn produces the truth of the lovers' affections. Lying also leads to poetic justice. When Constance asks to wear her jewels, Mrs Hardcastle lies and tells her they have been lost. Tony takes the jewels to give to Hastings, and when Mrs Hardcastle goes to find them, they have been lost. Her lie has become true.



Analysis of the Theme of Sex roles In She Stoops to Conquer


Sex roles
In many ways, Goldsmith's She Stoops to Conquer satirizes the ways the eighteenth-century society believed that proper men and women ought to behave. While the play shows the traditional pattern of male-female relations in Hastings's wooing of Constance, it also reverses the era's sexual etiquette


Analysis of the Theme of Money In She Stoops to Conquer


Money
One of the factors that keeps the play pragmatic even when it veers close to contrivance and sentiment is the unavoidable importance of money. While some of the characters, like Marlow and Hardcastle, are mostly unconcerned with questions of money, there are several characters whose lives are largely
defined by a lack of access to it. Constance cannot run away with Hastings because she worries about a life without her inheritance. When Marlow thinks Kate is a poor relation of the Hardcastles, he cannot get himself to propose because of her lack of dowry. In the case of Tony, he seems to live a life unconcerned with wealth, although the implicit truth is that his dalliances (flirtations) are facilitated by having access to wealth.


Analysis of the Theme of Money breeds indolence In She Stoops to Conquer


Money breeds indolence
Tony will get 1,500 pounds a year when he comes of age. Thus, without financial worries, he devotes himself to ale and a do-nothing life.


Analysis of the Theme of Culture: old vs. new; age vs. youth; In She Stoops to Conquer


Culture: old vs. new; age vs. youth; country vs. city Goldsmith creates a clash of cultures between country and city. We laugh at the reactionary nature of Hardcastle but also at the empty superficiality of Marlow: neither way of life is presented as ideal. Goldsmith undercuts the surface sophistication of city types by contrasting them with Tony Lumpkin a man often of blunt and unsophisticated common sense. This is evident from the very first scene where Hardcastle himself as old in age and manner in contrast to the youth of bis daughter and city ideals embraced by Hardcastle.


Analysis of the Theme of Moderation In She Stoops to Conquer


Moderation
Throughout the play runs a conflict between the refined attitudes of town and the simple behaviours of
the country. The importance of this theme is underscored by the fact that it is the crux of the opening disagreement between Hardcastle and his wife. Where country characters like Hardcastle see town manners as pretentious, town characters like Marlow see country manners as 'rustic'. The best course
of action is proposed through Kate, who is praised by Marlow as having a "refined simplicity." Having lived in the city.... she is able to appreciate the values of both sides of life and can find happiness in
appreciating the contradictions that exist between them.


Analysis of the Theme of Contradiction In She Stoops to Conquer


Contradiction
Many of the characters in the play desire that the others are simple to understand. This in many ways mirrors the expectations ofan audience that Goldsmith wishes to mock. Where his characters are initially presented as comic types, he spends time throughout the play complicating them all by showing their contradictions. Most clear are the contradictions within Marlow, who is both refined and base. The final happy ending comes when the two oldest men-Hardcastle and Sir Charles decide to accept the contradictions in their children. In a sense, this theme helps to understand Goldsmith's purpose in the play, reminding us that all people are worthy of being miocked because of their silly, base natures. and no one is above reproach.


Analysis of the Theme of Comedy In She Stoops to Conquer


Comedy
Though it is only explicitly referred to in the prologue, an understanding of Goldsmith's play in context shows his desire to reintroduce his audience to the "laughing comedy that deived from a
long history of comedy that mocks human vice. This type of comedy stands in contrast to the then-popular “sentimental comedy” that praised
virtues and reinforced bourgeois mentality. Understanding Goldsmith’s love of the former helps to clarify several elements of the play: the low scene in the Three Pigeons; the mockery of baseness in even the most high-bred characters; and the celebration of absurdity as a fact of human life.


Analysis of the Theme of Money Breeds Indolence In She Stoops to Conquer


Money Breeds Indolence
Tony Lumpkin will get 1,500 pounds a year when he comes of age. Thus, without financial worries, he devotes himself to ale and a do-nothing life.
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