Showing posts with label Shakespeare. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Shakespeare. Show all posts

Friday, 10 June 2016

Full Analysis of Othello

Analysis Of Othello


Get the Summary of Othello Themes of the play "Othello Summary of Act1 to Act5 in Othello Roles of Major and minor character in Othello

Summary of Othello

The play opens in the powerful city state of Venice, famous as a center of trade and banking and for its military might. It is in the early hours of the morning, and two men — Roderigo, a young gentleman and former suitor of Senator Brabantio's daughter Desdemona, and Iago, an ensign who claims to have been passed over for promotion by Othello — are outside Senator Brabantio's house to tell him the news of his daughter's elopement with Othello, the Moor. After sharing the news of the secret marriage in words calculated to alarm him, the treacherous and vindictive Iago quickly departs, leaving Roderigo to confirm the story. Feigning friendship and concern, Iago then meets with Othello and tells him of Brabantio's reaction. Brabantio, Othello, and Desdemona appear before the Duke of Venice. Although Brabantio accuses Othello of seducing his daughter by witchcraft, Othello explains that he won Desdemona by telling her his adventures, and Desdemona, called to testify, convinces the senators that she has freely gone with Othello and married him for love. The Duke appoints Othello as general of the defense forces against the Turks, and he must leave for Cyprus immediately. Desdemona requests permission to accompany Othello to Cyprus. With the Duke's permission, Othello arranges for Desdemona to follow him later in another ship with Iago, whom he mistakenly believes is a trusted friend, and Iago's wife, Emilia. Iago convinces Roderigo that Desdemona will soon tire of Othello and that he should follow her to Cyprus. To himself, Iago decides to make use of Cassio, the man he deeply resents and who received the promotion he himself wanted, as the instrument to destroy Othello. In Cyprus, Iago plots against Othello, planting the seed of doubt about Desdemona's fidelity and implicating Cassio as her lover. Using Roderigo, Iago arranges a fight that ultimately results in Cassio's demotion. Believing that his chances of reinstatement are better if he has Desdemona plead his case to her husband, Cassio, with Iago's help, arranges for a private meeting with Desdemona, who promises to speak on his behalf to Othello until his reconciliation with Othello is achieved. As Cassio leaves, Iago and Othello appear. Othello notices Cassio's speedy departure, and Iago quickly seizes the opportunity to point out that Cassio seems to be trying to avoid the Moor. Desdemona immediately and enthusiastically begins to beg Othello to pardon Cassio, as she promised, and will not stop her pleading until Othello, preoccupied with other thoughts, agrees. The moment Desdemona and Emilia leave, however, Iago begins to plant seeds of doubt and suspicion in Othello's mind. Othello, beset by uncertainty and anxiety, later demands of Iago some proof that Desdemona is unfaithful. Using a handkerchief that Desdemona later innocently drops, Iago convinces Othello that she has been unfaithful, and he stages a conversation with the innocent Cassio that further hardens the Moor's heart against his wife and her supposed lover. Convinced of his wife's betrayal and enraged and grieving, Othello rushes into action, making an agreement with Iago that he, Othello, will kill Desdemona, and Iago will dispose of Cassio. Desdemona, true to her word to Cassio, continues to plead on his behalf, unknowingly confirming to Othello her unfaithfulness. He accuses her of falseness, and Desdemona, not knowing what she has done to offend, can only assure him that she loves him. Meanwhile, the gullible Roderigo has abandoned all hope of Desdemona, but Iago urges him to kill Cassio and rekindle his hopes. Late that night, they attack Cassio in the street, but it is Cassio who wounds Roderigo. Iago rushes out and stabs Cassio in the leg. Othello, hearing Cassio's cries for help, believes that half of the revenge is completed and hastens to fulfil his undertaking. Desdemona is in bed when Othello enters. He tells her to pray a last prayer as he has no wish to kill her soul. Realizing that he plans to murder her, Desdemona protests her innocence of any wrongdoing. Knowing that he doesn't believe her, she begs him to let her live just a little longer, but he smothers her with a pillow. Emilia, Desdemona's servant and Iago's wife, upon discovering the ruse, raises the alarm and declares Iago a liar before Montano and Gratiano. She explains how Desdemona's handkerchief came into Cassio's possession, and when she refuses to be quiet, Iago stabs her. Cassio, wounded, confirms Emilia's story. A soldier to the last, Othello stands on his honor. Knowing that this is the end, he asks to be remembered as "one that loved not wisely but too well." Then he stabs himself and falls on the bed beside his wife, where he dies.

Major scene of Othello

•Act I, scene iii, the scene in front of the senators in which Othello tells how he wooed Desdemona and she declares she loves him freely. •Act II, scene iii, the scene in which Cassio is drawn by Iago first into drinking then brawling. Othello relieves Cassio of his duties after hearing Iago’s “reluctant” testimony. •Act III, scene iii, the second part of the scene in which Iago begins to poison Othello’s view of Desdemona. •Act IV, scene i, the scene in which Othello is hidden listening to Cassio talk to Iago about Bianca, but Othello thinks he is talking about Desdemona. •Act IV, scene iii, the part of the scene between Emilia and Desdemona, in which the two women discuss their different responses to the temptations to betray their marriage vows. •Act V, scene ii, the scene in which Othello murders Desdemona.

Themes of the play "Othello"

The theme of Sex

Shakespeare's play explores some common sixteenth century anxieties about miscegenation (interracial sex and marriage) by examining the relationship between a black man who marries a white woman, accuses her of being unfaithful, and then strangles her on her wedding sheets. In Othello, most male characters assume that women are inherently promiscuous, which explains why all three women characters in the play are accused of sexual infidelity. It also explains, in part, why it's possible for Iago to so easily manipulate Othello into believing his wife is having an affair. Othello is also notable for its portrayal of homoerotic desire, which seems to be a factor in Iago's plot to destroy Othello and Desdemona.

The theme of Marriage

Shakespeare's portrayal of marriage is pretty bleak in Othello. The play begins with a conflict between Desdemona's husband and her father, who sees his daughter's elopement as a kind of theft of his personal property. The play's two wives (Desdemona and Emilia) are both unfairly accused of infidelity, and both wives are murdered by their abusive husbands. More famously, perhaps, is the way Shakespeare examines sixteenth-century anxieties about interracial couplings – in Othello, the marriage of a black man and a white woman allows Shakespeare to explore attitudes about race and gender.

The theme of Gender

Gender relations are pretty antagonistic in Othello. Unmarried women are regarded as their fathers' property and the play's two marriages are marked by male jealousy and cruelty (both wives are murdered by their own husbands). Most male characters in Othello assume that all Venetian women are inherently promiscuous, which explains why female sexuality is a huge threat to men in the play. Othello is easily convinced his wife is cheating on him and feels emasculated and humiliated as a result. We should also note that it's impossible to discuss gender and sexuality without considering race – several characters in the play, including Othello, believe that black men sexually contaminate white women, which may partially explain why Othello sees his wife as soiled. See also our discussions of "Race" and "Sex" for more on this topic.

The theme of Manipulation

Othello's villain, Iago, may be literature's most impressive master of deception. Iago plots with consummate sophistication, carefully manipulating Othello (without any real proof) into believing that Desdemona has been unfaithful. His understanding of the human psyche is phenomenal, as is his ability to orchestrate a complicated interweaving of pre-planned scenarios. Iago's deception is potent because of his patience, his cleverness, and what seems to be his intrinsic love of elegant manipulation.

The theme of Identity

In Othello, Shakespeare explores factors that play an important role in the formations of one's identity – race, gender, social status, family relationships, military service, etc. Othello is also concerned with how an individual's sense of identity (which can break down and be manipulated by others) shapes his or her actions.

The theme of Race

Othello is one of the first black heroes in English literature. A military general, he has risen to a position of power and influence. At the same time, however, his status as a black-skinned foreigner in Venice marks him as an outside and exposes him to some pretty overt racism, especially by his wife's father, who believes his daughter's interracial marriage can only be the result of Othello's trickery. Because the play portrays fears of miscegenation (the intermixing of races via marriage and/or sex), it's nearly impossible to talk about race in Othello without also discussing gender and sexuality.

The Theme of Jealousy

Othello is the most famous literary work that focuses on the dangers of jealousy. The play is a study of how jealousy can be fueled by mere circumstantial evidence and can destroy lives. (In Othello, the hero succumbs to jealousy when Iago convinces him that Desdemona has been an unfaithful wife – in the end, Othello murders his wife and then kills himself.) It is interesting that Iago uses jealousy against Othello, yet jealousy is likely the source of Iago's hatred in the first place. In Othello, jealousy takes many forms, from sexual suspicion to professional competition, but it is, in all cases, destructive.

Summary of Act1 to Act5 in Othello

Summary of Act I, Scene 1 In the streets of Venice, Iago tells Roderigio of his hatred for Othello, who has given Cassio the lieutenancy that Iago wanted and has made Iago a mere ensign. At Iago’s suggestion, he and Roderigo, a former suitor to Desdemona, awake Desdemona’s father to tell him that Desdemona has eloped with Othello. This news enrages Brabantio, who organizes an armed band to search out Othello. Summary of Act I, Scene 2 Iago warns Othello about Brabantio’s anger, but Othello is confident in his own strength and in his love for Desdemona. Cassio arrives with orders from Othello: Othello is to meet with the duke and senators of Venice about about a Turkish invasion of the Venetian colony of Cyprus. Brabantio and his armed band come to seize Othello, who persuades Brabantio to accompany him to the duke, where Othello has been summoned and where Brabantio can present his case against Othello for his “theft” of Desdemona.
Summary of Act I, Scene 3 The duke and the senators discuss the movements of the Turkish fleet and conclude that its target is, indeed, Cyprus. When Brabantio and Othello arrive, the duke insists on evidence to support the old man’s charge that Othello has bewitched Desdemona. At Othello’s suggestion, the duke sends for Desdemona. Othello describes his courtship of Desdemona, who, when she enters, tells her father and the senators that she has married Othello because she loves him. She thereby vindicates Othello before the senate. The duke orders Othello immediately to Cyprus and grants Desdemona her wish to join him there. Othello gives Iago the duty of conveying Desdemona to Cyprus. Alone with Iago, Roderigo, now in despair of winning Desdemona’s love, threatens suicide, but Iago persuades him instead to sell his lands for ready cash and pursue Desdemona to Cyprus. Iago beings to plot to himself how he may use Othello’s marriage to get back at Othello and to get Cassio’s place as lieutenant. Summary of Act II, Scene 1 A terrible storm has struck Cyprus, just as the Turks were about to approach. This might mean that the Turkish attack will not happen; but it also bodes badly for Othello's ship. A messenger enters, and confirms that the Turkish fleet was broken apart by the storm, and that Cassio has arrived, though Othello is still at sea. They spot a ship coming forth; but Iago, Desdemona, and Emilia are on it, not Othello. Cassio greets them all, especially praising Desdemona; somehow, Iago and Desdemona enter into an argument about what women are, and Iago shows how little praise he believes women deserve. Othello arrives at last, and is very glad to see his wife arrived, much earlier than expected; he and Desdemona make public signs of their love, and then depart. Iago speaks to Roderigo, convincing him that Desdemona will stray from Othello, as she has already done with Cassio. He convinces Roderigo to attack Cassio that night, as he plans to visit mischief on both Othello and Cassio. Summary of Act II, Scene 2 Othello's herald enters, to proclaim that the Turks are not going to attack, all should be joyful, and Othello is celebrating the happiness of his recent marriage.
Summary of Act II, Scene 3 Iago and Cassio are on the watch together; Iago gets Cassio to drink a bit, knowing that he cannot hold his liquor at all. Iago also tries to get Cassio's feelings about Desdemona, and make her seem tempting to him; but his intentions are innocent and friendly, so this approach fails. Cassio leaves for a bit, and Iago says that he intends to get Cassio drunk, that will hopefully cause a quarrel between Cassio and Roderigo, who has been stirred up against Cassio. Iago wants to see Cassio discredited through this, so that he might take Cassio's place. Montano and others come, and Iago entertains them with small talk and song; soon, Cassio is drunk, and Roderigo has approached. Cassio fights offstage with Roderigo, and comes forth, chasing him; Montano tries to hinder Cassio, but Cassio just ends up injuring him. All the noise wakes Othello, who comes down to figure out what has happened. Montano tells what he knows of it all, and Iago fills in the rest, making sure to fictionalize his part in it all too. Cassio is stripped of his rank, and all leave Cassio and Iago alone. Cassio laments that he has lost his reputation, which is very dear to him. Iago tries to convince him that a reputation means little; and, if he talks to Desdemona, maybe he can get her to vouch for him with Othello. This will help Iago get the impression across that Desdemona and Cassio are together, which will make Othello very angry if it works. Iago then gives a soliloquy about knowing that Desdemona will speak for Cassio, and that he will be able to turn that against them both. . Just then, Iago enters and is shocked to see Cassio has not yet gone to bed. (Cassio is eager to make his case to Desdemona.) Cassio says he's already sent for Emilia, and Iago promises to send her to Cassio post-haste, so she can hear his plea and make it to Desdemona. In the meantime, Iago promises to lure Othello away from Desdemona, so Cassio can speak with her freely. Iago exits to do more evil master-planning. After Cassio praises Iago for his kindness and honesty, Emilia enters and reports that Desdemona is already pleading to Othello on Cassio's behalf. Othello worries that Montano, Cassio's victim, is kind of a big deal in Cyprus, though Othello has decided that his liking for Cassio should be enough to overcome the fact that Cassio has wronged the wrong guy. (There are guys you hit, and there are guys you don't hit. Montano is a guy you don't hit, and Othello is the guy who tells you that.) Cassio asks Emilia if perhaps he might speak to Desdemona alone. Emilia goes to see if she can arrange such a meeting. Act 3, Scene 2 Cut to Othello and Iago in the citadel. Othello bids Iago to give his regards to the Senate, and instructs him to meet later at the fortifications that are being built. Meanwhile, he's off to inspect said fortifications, which conveniently gets him out of the way for Cassio to have private, incriminating time with Desdemona.
Act 3, Scene 3 Cassio has explained the whole situation to Desdemona, and she promises to not rest until she's convinced Othello to grant Cassio's acceptance back into the military as well as Othello's personal friendship. Cassio declares he's forever indebted to her, and Desdemona again emphasizes that she'll do everything she can. She even says, "Thy solicitor shall rather die/ Than give thy cause away" (3.3.27-28). Definition: foreshadowing. Seeing Othello coming, Cassio decides it's time to leave. Desdemona tells him to stay, but Cassio feels too weird and hurries out. Thus, Iago begins his make-Othello-jealous campaign by commenting on how weird it is that Cassio hurried off so quickly, like a thief stealing away in the night. Desdemona jumps right into sweet-talking Othello and campaigning for Cassio. She claims that Cassio is really sorry, and suggests Othello call Cassio back to plead his case. Othello says "not now," and Desdemona says something like, "well, maybe tomorrow, or Tuesday morning, or Tuesday night, or Wednesday morning, or how about Wednesday night?" When Othello keeps putting her off, Desdemona claims she would never deny him anything, so why won't he listen to her? Besides, she has his best interests in mind. Othello responds that he will deny her nothing, but in the meantime could she please leave him alone. Iago asks fake-casual questions about Cassio, whom Othello says was often a go-between when he courted Desdemona. Iago keeps dropping uncomfortable hints, and finally, Othello demands to know what's bothering him. Iago says he'd rather not say, and then Othello presses him, and then Iago says he'd rather not say, and Othello presses. Eventually, after Iago has cast doubt on Cassio's honesty, suggested he is disloyal, and hinted that Desdemona is unfaithful, Iago tells Othello, "O beware, my lord, of jealousy; It is the green-eyed monster which doth mock / the meet it feeds on" (3.3.166-168). That's great, except that by "beware" he really means "I hope you become jealous and kill your wife, because that would be ironic." Othello says that he's not the type to get jealous – he builds his conclusions upon having suspicions, but only after he investigates them. If something seems wrong, he'll find out what's happening right away and resolve the situation. Othello knows Desdemona is desirable, and that he himself isn't, but that doesn't bother him. "She had eyes and chose me," Othello tells himself (3.3.190). Further, Othello promises he has to see something to raise his suspicion before he'd have doubts about his wife's loyalty, and if he were to see and have doubts, he'd prove whether they were justified right away. This strategy helps him avoid being too influenced in his reason by love or jealousy. It's a good plan, except if it does exist, he doesn't use it. Iago essentially says, "OK, if you promise you won't be jealous, you should watch Desdemona with Cassio, but objectively, and not out of jealousy." Iago says he knows
Act III, scene iv: Before the castle. Summary Desdemona asks the clown where Cassio is, and the clown goes off to fetch him. Desdemona is looking everywhere for the handkerchief, as she knows that her losing it will upset Othello greatly. Othello enters, and asks for Desdemona's handkerchief; she admits that she does not have it, and then Othello tells her of its significance and alleged magical powers. Desdemona does not like Othello's tone; he seems obsessed with this object, and Desdemona is so frightened by him that she wishes she had nothing to do with it. She interrupts Othello's inquiry by bringing up Cassio's attempt to get back into Othello's favor; Othello becomes angry, and storms out. Desdemona and Emilia both note that Othello is much changed; he is unkind and seems jealous, and they are suspicious of the change in him. Cassio then enters, with Iago; he laments that his suit is not successful, and that Othello does not seem likely to take him back. Desdemona is sorry for this, since she knows that Cassio is a man of worth; she tells Cassio and Iago that Othello has been acting strangely, and is upset, and Iago goes to look for him, feigning concern. Emilia thinks that Othello's change has something to do with Desdemona, or Othello's jealous nature; they still cannot fathom what has happened, and exit, leaving Cassio. Bianca comes in, and Cassio asks her to copy the handkerchief that he found in his room; it is Desdemona's handkerchief, though Cassio has no idea. He claims he does not love her, and gets angry with her for allegedly suspecting that the handkerchief is a gift of another woman. But, Bianca is not disturbed, and leaves with the handkerchief.
Act IV, scene i: Cyprus. Before the castle. Summary Othello is trying, even after swearing that Desdemona was unfaithful, not to condemn her too harshly. He is talking with Iago about the handkerchief still, and its significance in being found; but, soon, Iago whips Othello into an even greater fury through mere insinuation, and Othello takes the bait. Othello falls into a trance of rage, and Iago decides to hammer home his false ideas about his wife. Iago calls Cassio in, while Othello hides; Iago speaks to Cassio of Bianca , but Othello, in his disturbed state, believes that Cassio is talking of Desdemona, which is the last "proof" he needs before declaring his wife guilty. Bianca comes in, and gives the handkerchief back to Cassio, since she swears she will have nothing to do with it. Othello is incensed by Cassio, still believing that he was speaking of Desdemona, rather than Bianca. Now, Othello is resolved to kill Desdemona himself, and charges Iago with murdering Cassio. Lodovico, a noble Venetian whom Desdemona knows, has recently landed; Desdemona and Othello welcome him there. But, when Desdemona mentions Cassio, Othello becomes very angry and slaps her in front of everyone; she rushes off, very upset. Lodovico especially is shocked at this change in Othello, and has no idea how such a noble man could act so cruelly.
Act IV, scene ii: A room in the castle. Summary Othello questions Emilia about Desdemona's guilt, or the chance she has had an affair with Cassio. Emilia admits to having seen nothing, though Othello does not believe her. Emilia swears that she has seen and heard all that has gone on between Cassio and Desdemona, and that Desdemona is pure and true. Othello believes that Emilia is in on the deception; he accuses Desdemona, and her insistence that she is innocent only infuriates him further. Othello leaves, and Desdemona and Emilia try to figure out what has happened to Othello, and what they can do; Desdemona feels especially helpless, and Emilia is very angry. Emilia thinks that someone has manipulated Othello into accusing Desdemona, and has poisoned his mind; however, Iago is there to dispel this opinion, so that Emilia does not inquire further into her theory. Upon leaving the women, Iago comes across Roderigo ; he is not pleased with how Iago has handled things, and knows that although Iago is promising him Desdemona's favor, he has done nothing to indicate that he has worked to achieve this. Iago quiets him by making him believe that if he kills Cassio, then he will win Desdemona; Roderigo decides to go along with it, but Iago is coming dangerously close to being revealed.
Act IV, scene iii: Another room In the castle. Summary Othello tells Desdemona to go to bed, and dismiss Emilia; Emilia regrets Desdemona's marriage, although Desdemona cannot say that she does not love Othello. Desdemona knows that she will die soon; she sings a song of sadness and resignation, and decides to give herself to her fate. Desdemona asks Emilia whether she would commit adultery to win her husband the world. Emilia, the more practical one, thinks that it is not too big a price for a small act; Desdemona is too good, and too devout, to say that she would do so.
Act V, scene i: Cyprus. A street. Summary Iago has Roderigo poised and ready to pounce on Cassio , and kill him; if either of them is killed, it is to Iago's benefit, although he would like to have both of them disposed of, so that his devices might not be discovered. Roderigo and Cassio fight, and both are injured; Othello hears the scuffle, is pleased, and then leaves to finish off Desdemona. Iago enters, pretending that he knows nothing of the scuffle; Gratiano and Lodovico also stumble upon the scene, having no idea what has happened. Roderigo is still alive, so Iago feigns a quarrel, and finishes him off. Bianca comes by, and sees Cassio wounded; Iago makes some remark to implicate her; Cassio is carried away, and Roderigo is already dead. Emilia also comes in, and pins more blame on Bianca; she has done nothing, but Iago has some quick work to do if he is to exonerate himself in this mess.
Act V, scene ii: A bedchamber in the castle: DESDEMONA in bed asleep; a light burning. Summary Othello enters Desdemona's room while she is asleep; and though she is beautiful, and appears innocent, he is determined to kill her. He justifies this with images, metaphors, and ideas of her rebirth after death, and though his rage is softened, he is still much mistaken about her. Desdemona awakens, and he tells her to repent of any sins before she dies; she believes there is nothing she can do to stop him from killing her, but continues to assert her innocence. Othello tells her that he found her handkerchief with Cassio, though Desdemona insists it must not be true; she pleads with Othello not to kill her, but he begins to smother her. Emilia knocks, curious about what is going on; Othello lets her in, but tries to conceal Desdemona, who he thinks is already dead. Emilia brings the news of Roderigo's death, and Cassio's wounding. Emilia soon finds out that Desdemona is nearly dead, by Othello's hand;Desdemona speaks her last words, and then Emilia pounces on Othello for committing this horrible crime. Othello is not convinced of his folly until Iago confesses his part, and Cassio speaks of the use of the handkerchief; then, Othello is overcome with grief. Iago stabs Emilia for telling all about his plots, and then Emilia dies; theVenetian nobles reveal that Brabantio, Desdemona's father, is dead, and so cannot be grieved by this tragedy now. Othello stabs Iago when he isbrought back in; Othello then tells all present toremember him how he is,and kills himself. Cassio becomes the temporary leader of the troops at Cyprus, and Lodovico and Gratiano are to carry the news of the tragedy back to Venice. Iago is taken into custody, and his crimes will be judgedback in Venice.

Roles of Major and minor character in Othello


Othello

Othello A Moor (an African), a general in thedefense forces of the city state of Venice. His successful profession brings him high status in Venice, but his foreign origins and color separate him from those with whom he lives and works. He is a military man, with a reputation for courage in battle and good judgment in military matters. Othello falls in love and marries Desdemona, but during the campaign against the Turks, Othello is tricked by Iago intobelieving that his wife has been unfaithful with his lieutenant, Cassio. Iago works on Othello's personal and social insecurity until Othello believes the combination of Iago's lies and flimsy circumstantial evidence. Inflamed with jealousy, he smothers Desdemona in her bed, only to find out too late that he has been misled and has killed the woman who loved him faithfully. In despair, he kills himself.

Desdemona

: Desdemona is loyal, faithful, and passionately loves Othello.She is shrewd and wise, but is very subtle about it.She dies because she keeps blindingly faithful to Othello, and cannot understand why he believes her to be an adulterous.She asks Cassio to help her cheer up Othello, but Iago manipulates facts to make Othello even more jealous.She is blameless, and she dies tragically, so selfless as to deny that Othello has killed her in her dying breath.

IAGO

Iago Othello's ancient (captain) in the Venetian defense forces. He had hoped for promotion, but Othello passed over him in favor of Cassio, andIago works revenge on them both. He exploites Roderigo as a source of money and an unwitting accomplice in his plot to bring down Othello. When finally cornered and charged with his wickedness, Iago refuses to speak or to repent or explain his actions, and he goes to his punishment still surrounded by mystery.

RODERIGO

Roderigo A Venetian nobleman in love with Desdemona. He has more money than sense and pays Iago to court Desdemona on his behalf. Iago, playing on Roderigo's hopes and gullibility, continues to help himself to Roderigo's money, and Roderigo never gets his heart's desire. Iago involves Roderigo in an attack on Cassio, for which Roderigo pays with his life, as Iago kills him to ensure his silence.

CASSIO

Cassio is Othello's choice for his new Lieutenant.Cassio travels from a different city, and his reputation is known in far lands.He is an up and coming soldier, and a good friend to Othello.Cassio and Desdemona try to help Othello's jealousy together infriendship, but due to Iago's clouding of Othello's perception, this leads him to think that they are having an affair.

BRABANTIO

Brabantio A Venetian Senator, Desdemona's father. He is angry at his daughter's choice of husband but can do nothing once the marriage has taken place, and the Venetian Senate has accepted it. He warns Othello that Desdemona is a clever deceiver.

The Duke of Venice

The leader of the governing body of the city state of Venice. The Duke appoints Othello to lead the forces defending Venice against the Turkish attack on Cyprus; he also urges Brabantio to accept his daughter's marriage.

EMILIA

Emilia is Desdemona's female servant.She is Iago's husband, and has a practical and shrewd sense about her that is more apparent than Desdemona's.Emilia urges Desdemona to confront Othello, and when she learns of Iago's treachery, she reveals him, even though it costs her life.She is a good friend and companion to Desdemona, but unfortunately she puts into motion the events that lead Othello to believe that he has seen proof of Desdemona's unfaithfulness.

Gratiano Brabantio's brother

. He and Lodovico find Cassio wounded after Roderigo stabs him in the drunken brawl.

LODOVICO

Lodovico Desdemona's cousin. After the death of Desdemona, Lodovico questions Othello and Cassio together, thus revealing the truth.

MONTANO

Montano Othello's predecessor as the governor of Cyprus. He is Othello's friend and loyal supporter.

Setting of Othello

Venice and Cyprus The play starts in Venice and moves to Cyprus when the Turks invade. Venice is a prosperous Italian city and a symbol of law and civilization. It's also full of white people, which makes Othello, a black Moor, stand out among the Venetians. (Check out our discussion of the theme of " Race " if you want to know about the implications of this.) Venice also happens to be renowned for its courtesans (prostitutes). When the English thought about Venice, they often imagined it to be a city chock full of promiscuous women. Now that's quite a coincidence, given that Othello's plot hinges on Othello's suspicions about his wife's fidelity, don't you think? Check out what Thomas Coryat has to say in his account of his travels to Venice: the name of a Courtesan of Venice is vamoosed over all Christendom The woman that professeth this trade is called in the Italian tongue Cotezana, which word is derived from the Italian word cortesia that signifieth courtesie. Because these kinds of women are said to receive courtesies of theirfavorites As for the number of these Venetian courtesans it is very great. For it is thought there are of them in the whole city and other adjacent places, as Murano, Malamocco, etc. at the least twenty thousand, whereof many are esteemed so loose that they are said to open their quivers to every arrow, a most ungodly thing without doubt that there should be tolleration of such licentious wantons in so glorious, so potent, so renowned a city." (Coryat'sCrudities, 1611) Cyprus Eventually, action moves to a military encampment in Cyprus, an island sacred to Venus, the goddess of love. On the island of love, away from civilization and rationality, all hell breaks loose and Iago is able to convince Othello that Desdemona has been cheating on him. At this military camp, Desdemona has lost any kind of support system she may have had in her hometown of Venice, so she's vulnerable to the kind of violence associated with the world of men and military.
Feel free to drop your comment, ask question and share with friends
Share:

Friday, 19 February 2016

Summary and analysis of Like as the waves make towards the pebbled shore Sonnet 60


Like as the waves make towards the pebbled shore / So do our minutes hasten to their end;"

Like waves moving toward the pebbled shore, the minutes of our lives are ticking down,

"Each changing place with that which goes before / In sequent toil all forwards do contend."

Each minute (or wave) replacing the previous one, in a continuous forward march.

"Nativity, once in the main of light / Crawls to maturity, wherewith being crown'd,"

The newborn sun rises above the sea and crawls up to maturity (noontime), where it is kingly,

"Crooked eclipses 'gainst his glory fight / And Time that gave doth now his gift confound."

But slanting eclipses challenge the sun's glory, and Time, which gave the noon sun, now clouds it over.

"Time doth transfix the flourish set on youth / And delves the parallels in beauty's brow,"

Similarly, time destroys the perfection of youth, and carves wrinkles in a beautiful face,

"Feeds on the rarities of nature's truth / And nothing stands but for his scythe to mow:"

And time feeds on the preciousness of nature's perfection, and lays waste to all in its path.

"And yet to times in hope my verse shall stand / Praising thy worth, despite his cruel hand."

And yet I hope my verse will stand the test of time, praising your worth in spite of Time's cruel hand.

In the sonnet, time is symbolized by concrete images. For example, the opening two lines present a simile in which time is represented by "waves" and "minutes": "Like as the waves make towards the pebbled shore, / So do our minutes hasten to their end"; here, death is "the pebbled shore" — another concrete image.

In the second quatrain, the poet laments time's unfairness. A child — "Nativity" — is born and, over time, matures to adulthood, and yet the adult now dreads the maturation process as he grows increasingly older and thus reaches the point of death, or the end of time. Time, which gives life, now takes it away: "And Time that gave doth now his gift confound."

The antithesis in lines 9 through 12 is between the aging poet and the youth's good looks. The poet warns, "Time doth transfix the flourish set on youth / And delves the parallels in beauty's brow." In other words, the young man currently is beautiful, but "parallels" — wrinkles — will eventually appear, as they have on the poet. However much the young man and the poet would like beauty to reside forever on the youth's face, "nothing stands but for his [time's] scythe to mow."

Nonetheless, the poet promises to immortalize the youth's good looks before time's wrinkles appear on his face: "And yet to times in hope my verse shall stand, / Praising thy worth, despite his cruel hand." Unlike the poet's promise in Sonnet 19, this assurance does not include giving the young man eternal beauty. Even more, the "scythe" in line 12 recalls Sonnet 12's concluding couplet: "And nothing 'gainst Time's scythe can make defense / Save breed, to brave him when he takes thee hence." Clearly the poet is no longer concerned that the young man have a child to ensure the immortality of his beauty. Now, the poet's own sonnets are the only security the youth needs to gain eternal worth
Share:

Analysis of Sonnet 52 - "So am I as the rich, whose blessed key

Summary and Analysis of Sonnet 52 - "So am I as the rich, whose blessed key"

"So am I as the rich, whose blessed key / Can bring him to his sweet up-locked treasure,"

I am like a rich person whose wonderful key can open up his dear, locked-up treasure,

"The which he will not every hour survey / For blunting the fine point of seldom pleasure."

Which he will not visit too often for fear of dulling the excitement of experiencing a rare pleasure.

"Therefore are feasts so solemn and so rare / Since, seldom coming, in the long year set,"

That is why feasts are so special and rare, for they occur so seldom throughout the year,

"Like stones of worth they thinly placed are / Or captain jewels in the carcanet."

Sparsely placed like precious stones, or like the largest gems in a jeweled necklace.

"So is the time that keeps you as my chest / Or as the wardrobe which the robe doth hide,"

Similarly, time (or memory) keeps you like my treasure chest, or like a wardrobe hides the robe within,

"To make some special instant special blest / By new unfolding his imprison'd pride."

Awaiting some special occasion to be brought out, to uncover the pride that has been imprisoned.

"Blessed are you, whose worthiness gives scope / Being had, to triumph, being lack'd, to hope."

You are blessed, you whose worthiness gives measure; to have had you is to triumph, to lack you is at least to hope

Summary and Analysis of Sonnet 52 - "So am I as the rich, whose blessed key"
Buy Study Guide
What's he saying?

"So am I as the rich, whose blessed key / Can bring him to his sweet up-locked treasure,"

I am like a rich person whose wonderful key can open up his dear, locked-up treasure,

"The which he will not every hour survey / For blunting the fine point of seldom pleasure."

Which he will not visit too often for fear of dulling the excitement of experiencing a rare pleasure.

"Therefore are feasts so solemn and so rare / Since, seldom coming, in the long year set,"

That is why feasts are so special and rare, for they occur so seldom throughout the year,

"Like stones of worth they thinly placed are / Or captain jewels in the carcanet."

Sparsely placed like precious stones, or like the largest gems in a jeweled necklace.

"So is the time that keeps you as my chest / Or as the wardrobe which the robe doth hide,"

Similarly, time (or memory) keeps you like my treasure chest, or like a wardrobe hides the robe within,

"To make some special instant special blest / By new unfolding his imprison'd pride."

Awaiting some special occasion to be brought out, to uncover the pride that has been imprisoned.

"Blessed are you, whose worthiness gives scope / Being had, to triumph, being lack'd, to hope."

You are blessed, you whose worthiness gives measure; to have had you is to triumph, to lack you is at least to hope.


Sonnet 52 is wild, hotly contested among scholars for its (possible) abundance of sexual innuendo. It also can be argued that because sonnet 52 comes later in the sequence than sonnet 20, sonnet 52 represents a later stage or evolution of the poet's desires - but arguments based purely on the sonnets' ordering are shaky at best, since some scholars believe that the ordering of the sonnets does not conform to any actual chronology of events.

In sonnet 52 the poet describes the fair lord as a locked-up treasure, a solemn feast, a robe for a special occasion - something special and beautiful and blessed, as only something so rare can be. The language of the sonnet is overtly laudatory and also rationalizing, as it attempts to justify the narrator's separation from the fair lord or the infrequency of his being able to delight in him. As though only permissible on special occasions, the robe is awaiting its chance to come out of the closet, "To make some special instant special blest / By new unfolding his imprison'd pride."

Note the possible sexual innuendo captured in the seemingly phallic "fine point of seldom pleasure," the penetration of a key into a lock, and the "unfolding ... pride." Also note that the word "had" (line 14) is found elsewhere in the sonnets referring to sex, cf. "Past reason hunted, and no sooner had . . . Had, having, and in quest to have, extreme" (sonnet 129). Such are the clues that have led some scholars to the idea that sonnet 52 is in fact a revelation of the poet's having been sexually attracted to the fair lord.


ets Summary and Analysis of Sonnet 52 - "So am I as the rich, whose blessed key"
Buy Study Guide
What's he saying?

"So am I as the rich, whose blessed key / Can bring him to his sweet up-locked treasure,"

I am like a rich person whose wonderful key can open up his dear, locked-up treasure,

"The which he will not every hour survey / For blunting the fine point of seldom pleasure."

Which he will not visit too often for fear of dulling the excitement of experiencing a rare pleasure.

"Therefore are feasts so solemn and so rare / Since, seldom coming, in the long year set,"

That is why feasts are so special and rare, for they occur so seldom throughout the year,

"Like stones of worth they thinly placed are / Or captain jewels in the carcanet."

Sparsely placed like precious stones, or like the largest gems in a jeweled necklace.

"So is the time that keeps you as my chest / Or as the wardrobe which the robe doth hide,"

Similarly, time (or memory) keeps you like my treasure chest, or like a wardrobe hides the robe within,

"To make some special instant special blest / By new unfolding his imprison'd pride."

Awaiting some special occasion to be brought out, to uncover the pride that has been imprisoned.

"Blessed are you, whose worthiness gives scope / Being had, to triumph, being lack'd, to hope."

You are blessed, you whose worthiness gives measure; to have had you is to triumph, to lack you is at least to hope.



Sonnet 52 is wild, hotly contested among scholars for its (possible) abundance of sexual innuendo. It also can be argued that because sonnet 52 comes later in the sequence than sonnet 20, sonnet 52 represents a later stage or evolution of the poet's desires - but arguments based purely on the sonnets' ordering are shaky at best, since some scholars believe that the ordering of the sonnets does not conform to any actual chronology of events.

In sonnet 52 the poet describes the fair lord as a locked-up treasure, a solemn feast, a robe for a special occasion - something special and beautiful and blessed, as only something so rare can be. The language of the sonnet is overtly laudatory and also rationalizing, as it attempts to justify the narrator's separation from the fair lord or the infrequency of his being able to delight in him. As though only permissible on special occasions, the robe is awaiting its chance to come out of the closet, "To make some special instant special blest / By new unfolding his imprison'd pride."

Note the possible sexual innuendo captured in the seemingly phallic "fine point of seldom pleasure," the penetration of a key into a lock, and the "unfolding ... pride." Also note that the word "had" (line 14) is found elsewhere in the sonnets referring to sex, cf. "Past reason hunted, and no sooner had . . . Had, having, and in quest to have, extreme" (sonnet 129). Such are the clues that have led some scholars to the idea that sonnet 52 is in fact a revelation of the poet's having been sexually attracted to the fair lord.

But did Shakespeare really intend for this sonnet to be read as replete with sexual innuendo? Or is it just readers with a modern way of thinking who are taken aback by its amorous language and led to draw conclusions that are merely the products of our own imagination? These questions apply not only to sonnet 52 but also to the sonnets as a whole; however, in sonnet 52 the language seems to cross the line, warranting some attempt at explanation.


Share:

Full Summary and Analysis of Sonnet 30 - "When to the sessions of sweet silent thought"

Full Summary and Analysis of Sonnet 30 - "When to the sessions of sweet silent thought"



Sonnet 30 is at the center of a sequence of sonnets dealing with the narrator's growing attachment to the fair lord and the narrator's paralyzing inability to function without him. The sonnet begins with the image of the poet drifting off into the "remembrance of things past" - painful memories, we soon learn, that the poet has already lamented but now must lament anew. The fair lord enters the scene only in the sonnet's closing couplet, where he is presented as a panacea for the poet's emotional distress.

Closely mirroring the message of sonnet 29, here Shakespeare cleverly heightens the expression of his overwhelming anxiety by belaboring the theme of emotional dependence. Whereas in sonnet 29 he quits his whining after the second quatrain, in sonnet 30 three full quatrains are devoted to the narrator's grief, suggesting that his dependence on the fair lord is increasing. Meanwhile sonnet 30's closing couplet reiterates lines 9-14 of sonnet 29 in compact form, emphasizing that the fair lord is a necessity for the poet's emotional well-being: the fair lord is the only thing that can bring the poet happiness.

This pinnacle of the poet's plaintive state is beautifully conveyed through an artful use of repetition and internal rhyme. Beyond the obvious alliteration of "sessions of sweet silent thought," note the "-nce" assonance of "remembrance" and "grievances," to which may be added "since" and "cancell'd"; the correspondence of "sigh," "sought," and "sight"; and the rhyme in "foregone," "fore-bemoaned," "before," and "restored." It is as though the poet wishes to hammer in his hardship with the repetitive droning of his troubled soul.

Beyond its poetics, sonnet 30 also provides some prime examples of the poet's recurring tendency to describe his relationship with the fair lord in financial terms. The opening lines of the sonnet remind us of being called to court (cf. "court sessions" and "summon a witness"). This is followed by a slew of money-related terms, including "expense," "grievances," "account," "paid," and "losses." The phrase "tell o'er" in line 10 is an accounting expression (cf. the modern bank teller) and conjures up an image of the narrator reconciling a balance sheet of his former woes and likening them to debts that he can never pay off in full. The only cure for his financial hardship is the fair lord's patronage - perhaps something to be taken literally, suggesting that the fair lord is in fact the poet's real-world financial benefactor.
Share:

Analysis of Sonnet 20 "A woman's face with Nature's own hand painted

Full Summary and Analysis of Sonnet 20 - "A woman's face with Nature's own hand painted


"A woman's face with Nature's own hand painted / Hast thou, the master-mistress of my passion;"

Nature painted you with the face of a woman, you master and mistress of my passion;

"A woman's gentle heart, but not acquainted / With shifting change, as is false women's fashion;"

You have the gentle heart of a woman, yet you are not fickle like so many changeable women;

"An eye more bright than theirs, less false in rolling / Gilding the object whereupon it gazeth;"

Your eyes are brighter than women's, but not as deceptive as theirs; you shed golden light upon any object you gaze upon;

"A man in hue, all 'hues' in his controlling / Much steals men's eyes and women's souls amazeth."

A man of your appearance sets the standard for what a man should look like; your beauty attracts the eyes of men and amazes the souls of women.

"And for a woman wert thou first created; / Till Nature, as she wrought thee, fell a-doting,"

And you were first created to be a woman, but Nature fell in love with you (or made a mistake) as she was crafting you,

"And by addition me of thee defeated / By adding one thing to my purpose nothing."

And defeated me by adding one thing to you, a thing that does not aid my goal.

"But since she prick'd thee out for women's pleasure / Mine be thy love and thy love's use their treasure."

But since she chose you to be for women's pleasure, your love will be mine, yet the use of your love is for women's benefit.



is almost as though the narrator is saying all this with the ulterior motive of justifying his own attraction to the fair lord. Scholars are divided over what this attraction really equates to, but the prevailing view is that although the attraction is certainly present, this does not necessarily imply that it is sexual. In lines 11-12, for example, the poet explicitly bemoans the fact that the fair lord was created as a man, but at the same time he explicitly denies any interest in the fair lord's genitalia: "And by addition me of thee defeated / By adding one thing to my purpose nothing." That "thing" is presumably the fair lord's penis, following common Shakespearean wordplay.

In the sonnet's closing couplet - tying in with the theme of platonic love vs. carnal lust - the poet concedes that the fair lord's love can belong to him even as the use of his love (that is, the sexual act) remains for the ladies. Note the poet's pun on the word "prick" in line 13: as a verb it can mean "to choose," while as a noun it can be a vulgar term for "penis." Finally, note that sonnet 20 is the only of Shakespeare's sonnets to use exclusively feminine rhyme - that is, end rhymes of at least two syllables with the final syllable unstressed - perhaps a deliberate attempt to further feminize the fair lord.

For a good example of the kind of creativity used by interpreters of the sonnets, let us consider the position held by some scholars that the poet intentionally encrypted the actual name of the fair lord into the lines of sonnet 20. Support for this hypothesis comes from the fact that the letters HEWS (with U at times in place of W) appear in every line in the sonnet but one; also note the "hue" and "hues" in line 7 (this second instance italicized in the Quarto), and the assonating "use" in line 14. Some take this as evidence for a Mr. Hughes as the true identity of the fair lord. Others see the letters as the poet's initials (WS) plus the first two letters of either Henry or Herbert (HE), possibly resorting to these names since the first letter of William or Wriothesley was already being used. One might even go so far as to claim that Shakespeare's use of the word "wrought" in line 10 was a deliberate alliterative reference to Wriothesley, or that the poet numbered the sonnet in accordance with the fair lord's age (Herbert would have turned 20 in 1600, Wriothesley in 1593). Obviously such interpretation is highly speculative and must remain inconclusive without corroborating historical evidence. But readers can enjoy wondering whether any of these ideas is true.

Share:

Full poem analysis of Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? sonnet18

Full Summary and Analysis of Sonnet 18 - "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?" Shakespeare's Sonnets


Summary and Analysis of Sonnet 18 - "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?"


"Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? / Thou art more lovely and more temperate:"

What if I were to compare you to a summer day? You are lovelier and more temperate (the perfect temperature):

"Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May / And summer's lease hath all too short a date:"

Summer's beauty is fragile and can be shaken, and summertime fades away all too quickly:

"Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines / And often is his gold complexion dimm'd;"

Sometimes the sun is far too hot, and often it is too cool, dimmed by clouds and shade;

"And every fair from fair sometime declines / By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd;"

And everything that is beautiful eventually loses its beauty, whether by chance or by the uncontrollable course of nature;

"But thy eternal summer shall not fade / Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest;"

But your eternal beauty (or youth) will not fade, nor will your beauty by lost;

"Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade / When in eternal lines to time thou growest:"

Nor will Death boast that you wander in his shadow, since you shall grow with time through these sonnets:

"So long as men can breathe or eyes can see / So long lives this and this gives life to thee."

For as long as people can breathe and see, this sonnet will live on, and you (and your beauty) with it.

Why is he saying it?

Sonnet 18 is arguably the most famous of the sonnets, its opening line competitive with "Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou Romeo?" in the long list of Shakespeare's quotable quotations. The gender of the addressee is not explicit, but this is the first sonnet after the so-called "procreation sonnets" (sonnets 1-17), i.e., it apparently marks the place where the poet has abandoned his earlier push to persuade the fair lord to have a child. The first two quatrains focus on the fair lord's beauty: the poet attempts to compare it to a summer's day, but shows that there can be no such comparison, since the fair lord's timeless beauty far surpasses that of the fleeting, inconstant season.

Here the theme of the ravages of time again predominates; we see it especially in line 7, where the poet speaks of the inevitable mortality of beauty: "And every fair from fair sometime declines." But the fair lord's is of another sort, for it "shall not fade" - the poet is eternalizing the fair lord's beauty in his verse, in these "eternal lines." Note the financial imagery ("summer's lease") and the use of anaphora (the repetition of opening words) in lines 6-7, 10-11, and 13-14. Also note that May (line 3) was an early summer month in Shakespeare's time, because England did not adopt the Gregorian calendar until 1752.

The poet describes summer as a season of extremes and disappointments. He begins in lines 3-4, where "rough winds" are an unwelcome extreme and the shortness of summer is its disappointment. He continues in lines 5-6, where he lingers on the imperfections of the summer sun. Here again we find an extreme and a disappointment: the sun is sometimes far too hot, while at other times its "gold complexion" is dimmed by passing clouds. These imperfections contrast sharply with the poet's description of the fair lord, who is "more temperate" (not extreme) and whose "eternal summer shall not fade" (i.e., will not become a disappointment) thanks to what the poet proposes in line 12.

In line 12 we find the poet's solution - how he intends to eternalize the fair lord's beauty despite his refusal to have a child. The poet plans to capture the fair lord's beauty in his verse ("eternal lines"), which he believes will withstand the ravages of time. Thereby the fair lord's "eternal summer shall not fade," and the poet will have gotten his wish. Here we see the poet's use of "summer" as a metaphor for youth, or perhaps beauty, or perhaps the beauty of youth



But has the poet really abandoned the idea of encouraging the fair lord to have a child? Some scholars suggest that the "eternal lines" in line 12 have a double meaning: the fair lord's beauty can live on not only in the written lines of the poet's verse but also in the family lines of the fair lord's progeny. Such an interpretation would echo the sentiment of the preceding sonnet's closing couplet: "But were some child of yours alive that time / You should live twice; in it and in my rhyme." The use of "growest" also implies an increasing or changing: we can envision the fair lord's family lines growing over time, yet this image is not as readily applicable to the lines of the poet's verse - unless it refers only to his intention to continue writing about the fair lord's beauty, his verse thereby "growing." On the other hand, line 14 seems to counter this interpretation, the singular "this" (as opposed to "these") having as its most likely antecedent the poet's verse, and nothing more.
Share:

Full anaysis and summary From fairest creatures we desire increase Sonnet1

Full anaysis and summary of Sonnet 1 - "From fairest creatures we desire increase"


From fairest creatures we desire increase / That thereby beauty's rose might never die,"

We want the best-looking people to have children so that their beauty can be appreciated by future generations,

"But as the riper should by time decease / His tender heir might bear his memory:"

For once the elder has passed away, his young will share the memory of his ancestor's beauty (and may look like the elder):

"But thou, contracted to thine own bright eyes / Feed'st thy light's flame with self-substantial fuel,"

But you, obsessed with your own beauty, selfishly consume all of that beauty's light,

"Making a famine where abundance lies / Thy self thy foe, to thy sweet self too cruel:"

Depriving the world of that beauty when there is plenty to be had by all; you are your own enemy, you are cruel to your own sweet self, for not having a child to carry on your memory.

"Thou that art now the world's fresh ornament / And only herald to the gaudy spring,"

You who are now a beautiful thing on earth, and the one who announces the coming of spring,

"Within thine own bud buriest thy content / And, tender churl, mak'st waste in niggarding:"

Are burying your self-satisfied beauty within yourself, and wasting it by being selfish.

"Pity the world, or else this glutton be / To eat the world's due, by the grave and thee."

Have pity on the world and bear a child; otherwise you are a glutton, keeping your beauty to yourself by taking it with you to the grave.




in these sonnets the poet pleads with the fair lord, begging him to have a child so that his beauty may be passed on for future generations. This mini-theme of procreation continues until sonnet 18, whereupon the poet seemingly abandons it in favor of a new course. From then on the poet seeks to eternalize the fair lord's beauty in the lines of his verse, a plan he foreshadows in some preceding sonnets, e.g., "But were some child of yours alive that time / You should live twice; in it and in my rhyme" (sonnet 17)

the poet appears infatuated with the fair lord's beauty, as the fair lord is infatuated with it himself. Knowing that Shakespeare often drew on Greek and Latin myth and legend in his works, we see a possible allusion to the story of Narcissus in the fair lord's obsession with his own appearance. The fair lord seems not only obsessed with his own beauty but also immoderately selfish with it - at least in the eyes of the poet. The selfishness of the fair lord with respect to his beauty is alluded to elsewhere in the procreation sequence, e.g., "Unthrifty loveliness, why dost thou spend / Upon thyself thy beauty's legacy?" (sonnet 4).



a possible homoerotic undertone (a man's appreciation of another man's beauty), the imagery of financial bondage (as in "contracted"), and the theme of selfishness and greed embodied in the fair lord's unwillingness to eternalize his beauty himself, thereby "making a famine where abundance lies." In fact, the sonnet as a whole can be encapsulated under the theme of the ravages of time, as a one-line summary of its content might be made thus: "Have a child now, beautiful man, because the clock is ticking; don't be selfish."


n line 11, the word "content" could have two very different meanings depending on the position of the stress. If we follow the iambic rhythm, the stress falls on the second syllable, giving the word the meaning of "happiness" or "pleasure," i.e. "you are burying your happiness within yourself." However, some scholars have suggested that the poet is actually making a pun, with the alternate meaning of "content" (stress on the first syllable) a reference to the fair lord's content, his beauty (or even semen: the fair lord is keeping it all to himself, thereby wasting it). It is clear that the poet was very deliberate in his choice of words - his sonnets and plays show numerous other examples of similarly subtle and bawdy puns - so such speculation may seem more reasonable as one becomes more familiar with the sonnets and Shakespeare's work as a whole.



Share:

Full anaysis and summary of Sonnet 1 - "From fairest creatures we desire increase"

Full anaysis and summary of Sonnet 1 - "From fairest creatures we desire increase"


From fairest creatures we desire increase / That thereby beauty's rose might never die,"

We want the best-looking people to have children so that their beauty can be appreciated by future generations,

"But as the riper should by time decease / His tender heir might bear his memory:"

For once the elder has passed away, his young will share the memory of his ancestor's beauty (and may look like the elder):

"But thou, contracted to thine own bright eyes / Feed'st thy light's flame with self-substantial fuel,"

But you, obsessed with your own beauty, selfishly consume all of that beauty's light,

"Making a famine where abundance lies / Thy self thy foe, to thy sweet self too cruel:"

Depriving the world of that beauty when there is plenty to be had by all; you are your own enemy, you are cruel to your own sweet self, for not having a child to carry on your memory.

"Thou that art now the world's fresh ornament / And only herald to the gaudy spring,"

You who are now a beautiful thing on earth, and the one who announces the coming of spring,

"Within thine own bud buriest thy content / And, tender churl, mak'st waste in niggarding:"

Are burying your self-satisfied beauty within yourself, and wasting it by being selfish.

"Pity the world, or else this glutton be / To eat the world's due, by the grave and thee."

Have pity on the world and bear a child; otherwise you are a glutton, keeping your beauty to yourself by taking it with you to the grave.




in these sonnets the poet pleads with the fair lord, begging him to have a child so that his beauty may be passed on for future generations. This mini-theme of procreation continues until sonnet 18, whereupon the poet seemingly abandons it in favor of a new course. From then on the poet seeks to eternalize the fair lord's beauty in the lines of his verse, a plan he foreshadows in some preceding sonnets, e.g., "But were some child of yours alive that time / You should live twice; in it and in my rhyme" (sonnet 17)

the poet appears infatuated with the fair lord's beauty, as the fair lord is infatuated with it himself. Knowing that Shakespeare often drew on Greek and Latin myth and legend in his works, we see a possible allusion to the story of Narcissus in the fair lord's obsession with his own appearance. The fair lord seems not only obsessed with his own beauty but also immoderately selfish with it - at least in the eyes of the poet. The selfishness of the fair lord with respect to his beauty is alluded to elsewhere in the procreation sequence, e.g., "Unthrifty loveliness, why dost thou spend / Upon thyself thy beauty's legacy?" (sonnet 4).



a possible homoerotic undertone (a man's appreciation of another man's beauty), the imagery of financial bondage (as in "contracted"), and the theme of selfishness and greed embodied in the fair lord's unwillingness to eternalize his beauty himself, thereby "making a famine where abundance lies." In fact, the sonnet as a whole can be encapsulated under the theme of the ravages of time, as a one-line summary of its content might be made thus: "Have a child now, beautiful man, because the clock is ticking; don't be selfish."


n line 11, the word "content" could have two very different meanings depending on the position of the stress. If we follow the iambic rhythm, the stress falls on the second syllable, giving the word the meaning of "happiness" or "pleasure," i.e. "you are burying your happiness within yourself." However, some scholars have suggested that the poet is actually making a pun, with the alternate meaning of "content" (stress on the first syllable) a reference to the fair lord's content, his beauty (or even semen: the fair lord is keeping it all to himself, thereby wasting it). It is clear that the poet was very deliberate in his choice of words - his sonnets and plays show numerous other examples of similarly subtle and bawdy puns - so such speculation may seem more reasonable as one becomes more familiar with the sonnets and Shakespeare's work as a whole.



Share:

Tuesday, 16 February 2016

The analysis of all the symbols in othello



Handkerchief: In othello The handkerchief symbolizes different things to different characters. Since the handkerchief was the first gift Desdemona received from Othello, she keeps it about her constantly as a symbol of Othello’s love. Iago manipulates the handkerchief so that Othello comes to see it as a symbol of Desdemona herself—her faith and chastity. By taking possession of it, he is able to convert it into evidence of her infidelity. The symbol of the handkerchief is at the heart of the play's terrible irony. Given is a giftof true, honest, faithful love by Othello to Desdemona, it ultimately becomes a sign of Othello's jealousy, mistrust, and insecurity. One cannot trace this change in the symbol's significance without appreciating Iago's continual manipulation of Othello. Both the handkerchief and Desdemona remain pure and unchanged, however Iago is able to change Othello's perception of them. One of Shakespeare's recurring themes is the power of perception--Othello is willing to commit the most horrible of crimes based notupon facts, but upon his faulty interpretation of reality.


The Song “Willow”: Willow Song is another good symbol in Othello. Though it's just a song, it symbolizes Desdemona's similar doom to the Barbary maid who sang Willow, Willow, and was killed shortly after. Othello, at this point in the story, is plotting Desdemona's murder in her bed by strangulation. Since the Willow song was a song about infidelity and betrayal, it was a parallel directly to the case between Desdemona and Othello. The song’s lyrics suggest that both men and women are unfaithful to one another. To Desdemona, the song seems to represent a melancholy and resigned acceptance of her alienation from Othello’s affections, and singing it leads her to question Emilia about the nature and practice of infidelity.


Animals: Iago calls Othello a “Barbary horse,” an “old black ram,” and also tells Brabantio that his daughter and Othello are “making the beast with two backs” (I.i.117–118). In Act I, scene iii, Iago tells Roderigo, “Ere I would sayI would drown myself for the love of a guinea-hen, I would change my humanity with a baboon” (I.iii.312–313). He then remarks that drowning is for “cats and blind puppies” (I.iii.330–331). Cassio laments that, when drunk, he is “by and by a fool, and presently a beast!” (II.iii.284–285). Othello tells Iago, “Exchange me for a goat / When I shall turn the business of my soul / To such exsufflicate and blowed surmises” (III.iii.184–186). He later says that “[a] horned man’s a monster and a beast” (IV.i.59). Even Emilia, in the final scene, says that she will “play the swan, / And die
Share:

The Analysis of Irony in Shakespeare’s ‘Othello’

Irony: Harmon and Holman in A Handbook to Literature define irony as "a broad term referring to the recognition of a reality different from appearance." Othello is an essentially ironic play in that Shakespeare creates such a wide divide between what appears tobe real to the characters in the play and what appears to be real to the audience in the theater. He does this through several devices. In the first place, Shakespeare offers Iago some of the best language in the playwright's whole body of work. Consequently, Iago appears to the other characters as well spoken, appealing, and attractive. His language makes him someone they trust. This is evident from the number of times a character (particularly Othello) refers to Iago as "honest." Iago does not look like the villain he is. In this, Shakespeare deviates from the traditions of the Middle Ages in which evil characters always exhibit some degree of the evil on the surface. Indeed, in medieval romance, characters are as they appear: an ugly character is inevitably evil. Shakespeare plays with both audience and character horizon of expectation here. The first gap, then, is between what the characters and audience expect from such an attractive and well-spoken character and what he really is. Shakespeare also structures his scenes so that the play becomes increasingly ironic.
Share:

The Analysis and roles of desdemona, othello, cassio, iago, emilia and all characters inShakespeare’s ‘Othello’;


Othello: Othello is a general in the army of Venice.He is a Moor, a dark-skinned man born in Africa, and has risen through the ranks of the Venetian army through hard work and success in battle.He is a respected general, but less respected as a person, because of his dark skin and foreign roots.He is an honest man, and believes that people are honest.This makes him naive in many ways.Othello is a passionate man, and deeply loves Desdemona, even when he kills her. Iago uses Othello's trust in him to manipulate him, and Othello stops trusting in Desdemona,and begins to rely exclusively on Iago's advice.Desdemona was Othello's passion, and when she dies, he must die soon after, especially after he learns that she was innocent.

Desdemona: Desdemona is loyal, faithful, and passionately loves Othello.She is shrewd and wise, but is very subtle about it.She dies because she keeps blindingly faithful to Othello, and cannot understand why he believes her to be an adulterous.She asks Cassio to help her cheer up Othello, but Iago manipulates facts to make Othello even more jealous.She is blameless, and she dies tragically, so selfless as to deny that Othello has killed her in her dying breath.

Iago: Iago is Othello's sword-bearer.He has been passed over for the position of Lieutenant, and this draws out his evil nature.He feels that he has been wronged and cannot accept the position that Othello gives him.Iago orchestrates Othello's downfall out of malice and revenge, and it is worse because Iago coats his poisonous words in the appearance of truth.Othello has no reason to doubt Iago, and Iago is able to completely manipulate Othello and to control his actions.Othello kills Desdemona, but Iago is responsible.Iago is only concerned about himself and his position, and will sacrifice anyone to save himself and his interests.This is shown when he kills his own wife when it is discovered that he has been treacherous.

Emilia: Emilia is Desdemona's female servant.She is Iago's husband, and has a practical and shrewd sense about her that is more apparent than Desdemona's.Emilia urges Desdemona to confront Othello, and when she learns of Iago's treachery, she reveals him, even though it costs her life.She is a good friend and companion to Desdemona, but unfortunately she puts into motion the events that lead Othello to believe that he has seen proof of Desdemona's unfaithfulness.


Cassio: Cassio is Othello's choice for his new Lieutenant.Cassio travels from a different city, and his reputation is known in far lands.He is an up and coming soldier, and a good friend to Othello.Cassio and Desdemona try to help Othello's jealousy together in friendship, but due to Iago's clouding of Othello's perception, this leads him to think that they are having an affair.
Share:

The theme of Sexuality in Othello

Sexuality: Othello stands out among Shakespeare's works as the most troublingly sexual of all plays. Indeed, it is the issue of sex that causes the downfall of both Othello and Desdemona. In the opening scene, Iago and Roderigo awaken Brabantio to inform him of Desdemona's elopement. Their language is obscene and racist: "An old black ram / Is tupping your white ewe," Iago shouts, "Your daughter / and the Moor are making the beast with two backs."Further, Shakespeare calls attention to the nuptial night between Othello and Desdemona by having it interrupted several times, first in Venice when Othello is called to the Senate and later in Cyprus when Cassio stabs Montano. This serves to produce extreme sexual tension; in the scenes shared by Othello and Desdemona, their language is highly charged with interrupted desire. For Othello, thoughts of sexual infidelity are also at the heart of his total disintegration. After murdering Desdemona, the thoughts of her supposed promiscuity continue to eat at Othello. "Iago knows t hat she with Cassio hath the act of shame / A thousand times committed," Othello says in his own defense. The fear of cuckoldry runs deep in many of Shakespeare's plays; yet in most plays it is a matter of joke and play. In Othello, however, Shakespeare demonstrates how such fear, when attached with deeper issues of sexuality, can turn tragic.
Share:

The theme of love in othello by Shakespeare

Love: Love triumphs in Othello, but it’s a bitter victory. Desdemona never stops loving her husband, even when he accuses her of cheating on him, slaps her in public, calls her a whore, and strangles her to death. With her last breath, Desdemona chooses to blame herself for her death rather than implicate Othello. The strength of her love is particularly impressive, as it proves impervious to the machinations of Iago, the play’s villain. Iago does not believe in love; he reduces it in his mind to dirty desire. While his scheming destroys the central couple’s marriage and lives, what he cannot destroy is their love. The role of love in the play is further complicated by Othello’s debatable claim that he loved "not wisely, but too well." In this line, Othello reminds us that the passion of love outdoes the reason of logic.
Share:

The theme of jealousy in Othello

A theme in a literary work is a recurring, unifying subject or idea, a motif that allows us to understand more deeply the charactersand their world. In Othello, the major themes reflect the values and the motivations of the characters.


Jealousy: Traditionally, Othello was read as a cautionary tale about the destructive nature of the green- eyed monster, jealousy. Certainly, the play isfilled with examples of jealousy, each contributing to the claustrophobic atmosphere of plot and counterplot, all orchestrated by Iago. Iago himself attributes his hatred of Othello to numerous sorts of jealousy: he is jealous of Michael Cassio because hebelieves that Cassio has been promoted unjustly over him and because he believes that Cassio might have had an affair with his wife. Iago is jealous of Othello because he believes that Othello might have had sex with his wife and because he says that he loves Desdemona himself. It is almost as if Iago examines the various kinds of jealousy he finds in himself in order to exploit those jealousies in others. For example, he first manipulates Roderigo. Roderigo, in love with Desdemona, is very jealous of Othello and by extension of Cassio. His jealousy makes him an easy dupe for Iago's plotting. Likewise, Bianca is jealous of any woman in whom Cassio might be interested, and thus she also can be manipulated by Iago. Of course, the most destructive jealous ragethat Iago incites is that within Othello. Iago uses his own fear of cuckoldry as the basis for his plot against Othello. By projecting his own feelings (and a common cultural fear) onto Othello, he is able to convince Othello that what he fears most, Desdemona's betrayal, is a reality. It is jealousy that weakens Othello's mind and reason, thus rendering him increasingly vulnerable to Iago's plots.
Share:

Summary of Shakespeare’s ‘Othello’

The Analysis of Shakespeare’s ‘Othello’
Plot Summary
The play opens in Venice, Italy, at night. In the opening scene, Iago complains that Othello, his Commander, has passed him over to promote handsome Cassio to be his Lieutenant. He vows to get revenge. Iago first asks his friend Roderigo to tell Desdemona's father Brabantio that his daughter has left to marry Othello, a marriage Brabantio opposes because Othello is a Moor (an African). Brabantio confronts Othello, and they take their argument to the Duke, who has summoned Othello to ask him to sail to Cyprus to stop a Turkish invasion. Convinced by Othello and Desdemona that they love each other deeply despite their differences, the Duke gives Desdemona permissionto travel with Othello. By the time they reach Cyprus the foreign threat is gone.
Iago has Roderigo got Cassio drunk and draw him into a street fight. Iago has his revenge on Cassio when Othello strips Cassio of his rank for misbehavior. Then Iago decidesto make Othello believe his wife is unfaithful. He encourages Cassio to ask Desdemona to plead with Othello to be reinstated. Iago suggests to Othello that Desdemona is Cassio's lover. Trusting Iago and mad with jealousy, Othello promotes Iago and asks Iago to help him kill Cassio and Desdemona.
Share:

Contact Form

Name

Email *

Message *

privacy policy | Copyright © Kawecolony.com.ng | Powered by Blogger